BSS Social Work And Child Care Assignment

What program would you urge to your squad leader to decide this struggle or quandary that has arisen?

Bing a new societal worker for Angela I would necessitate to be really careful in obtaining all the relevant facts of her instance to day of the month in order to keep a clear continuity of attention. This would intend taking the clip to read, buttocks and absorb the information in her instance file and reflect upon same. I would besides do it my responsibility to speak to co-workers and if possible Angela ‘s old societal worker in order to derive a greater apprehension of this client, her needs, fond regards and aspirations. “Careful appraisal will take to the development of realistic and concrete goals” ( Coleman et al 1999, p.122 ) . This penetration would let me a greater comprehension of the current quandary and ease me with a strong foundation to measure and program from. My team leader may besides hold some experience of the instance so their contemplations and sentiments would be really utile towards explicating a program of action. In working with the household “the challenge is to equilibrate the demands and ends of each person with each other and with those of the system” ( Johnson & A ; Yanca 2001, p.239 ) . The common end is to seek the best results for Angela. As a beginning practician I need to be careful non “to ‘intervene ‘ before formulating, in concurrence with the household a clear set of ends for the assisting process” ( Pillari 2002, p.268 ) . Otherwise the assisting procedure will go confused, bogged down or terminated prematurely.

What I would wish to make so is organise a place visit to Angela and her household with a clear apprehension that it was to present myself while seeking a just and just solution to the current struggle. My premier nonsubjective being to maintain the household together ( Coleman et al 1999 ) . These appraisals will let me to understand and individualize the quandary in manus. Based on this comprehension I would do determinations based on the clients end scene and future accomplishment. The on-going appraisal would let me discover assorted options for a successful intercession. I need to go cognizant of other factors such as emotions, grounds behind them, power battles, including my ain power base and premises around it for the client in attention and her surrogate parents. “Without attending to the emotional deductions of factors such as mobility, isolation or depression, appraisal is improbable to interpret successfully into the following stage” ( Ford & A ; Stepney 1994, p.89 ) .

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After contemplation I would put about inciting household therapy in order to assist them with their current “interactional, behavioral and emotional problems” , as chiefly identified by current “parent-child interaction problems” Zastrow ( 2001, 2004, p47 & A ; p53 ) . The nucleus issues displayed being Angela ‘s preparedness and readying for future independency, support webs required and the reactions to same. This household reding would ease in turn toing these initial quandary and others as encountered through “listening and speaking through these difficulties” and so offering the household “competence and empathy” , Zastrow ( 2004, p180 ) . The importance of listening to Angela is important. This promotes her “recovery from adversity” ( Gilligan 2000, p41 ) and facilitates growing of ego regard and ego efficaciousness both with the current quandary and for the hereafter when resiliency is required.

She has been with the Murphy ‘s for 5 old ages which has offered a period of stableness in her life. This clip period if Angela and the surrogate household agree allows for action under subdivision four of the Child Care ( Amendment ) Act 2007 in which the Foster parents could legalize their already displayed longer term committedness. This would hold to be carefully approached though as it may be perceived by Angela as a signifier of indefensible control. Continuity of stableness is of import at this important phase in her development. A important positive is households are more receptive to alter during crisis so this will assist me in helping in negociating, placing accomplishments and strengths and obtaining committedness from the surrogate household ( Coleman et al 1999 ) .

It would be really of import that I engage in unfastened duologue with my client. My determinations would be better informed after this. It would be important that I do n’t curtail this to data assemblage but that I am honest and open to oppugning from Angela and her surrogate household. It ‘s important that I receive Angela ‘s consent before set abouting this appraisal. Ideally her Foster parents would besides hold. It would be really of import that I take a non-judgemental attack. This would intend restricting my ain personal sentiments and esteeming the household ‘s wants. Professional moralss and values are extremely of import besides in order to carry on a thorough and just overall appraisal ( Dolgoff et al 2000 ) . Autonomy, confidentiality and beneficence are cardinal ingredients to be offered to all clients within the appraisal. ( Kingsley 2001 ) .

The theory I would chiefly utilize would be solution focused. This cognitive attack involves me, the client, the surrogate household, birth household and other relevant bureaus and systems prosecuting through a household reappraisal meeting. This geographic expedition of single and group strengths and resiliency would authorise Angela to visualize a successful hereafter. “Empowerment seeks to assist clients derive power of determination and action over their ain lives by cut downing the consequence of societal or personal blocks to exerting bing power” Payne ( 1997, p.266 ) . Concentrating on her personal positives with an consciousness of available supports and by accepting her single strengths and utilizing these with motive and vision would assist accomplish success. This would ease her accomplishing a better life for herself in maturity.

Angela fulfils much of the standards as researched by Wells ( 2005 ) that outline future keys to success on go forthing attention. If suited and recognized by her it would be best pattern harmonizing to Courtney et Al ( 2005 ) and Cashmore and Paxman ( 2006 ) to remain in the Foster place for a clip after furthering terminals at 18. The household have shown willingness in this country but practicalities and the world around Angela working or analyzing a distance from the household place must besides be measured. Strong foundations in societal supports must be sown in progress of this contingency. I will research these subjects further in replying the 2nd and 3rd inquiries.

I would remind the Foster parents that their feelings as expressed in the phone call were natural and apprehensible. Besides that as a new societal worker to the instance I feel run intoing them in individual would afford me an chance to larn of their concerns and discourse them openly ( Harris et al 1997 ) . I would wish to do it clear to them that they were non being marginalised and in fact were being offered more resources ( if required ) in order to accomplish the best for Angela. In fact resources non presently offered or available in many other HSE countries. An apprehension of the “complex trifle which comprise family and personal organisation” ( Gilligan 1991, p.207 ) as experienced by the Foster carers can non be matched by me. At this visit I would be really careful about showing sentiment or taking sides and would utilize it as an chance to acquire them to hold to a household conference reappraisal at a ulterior day of the month in our office if a appropriate locale. Otherwise a suited alternate impersonal locale could be chosen. This meeting would assist ease through utilizing the solution focused systems led theoretical account to work the handiness and resources of those in attending as agreed upon. The surrogate parents would be free to show their positions with an understanding that their sentiments would be respected by me and the bureaus involved and that a via media would be sought and agreed upon as per the wants of Angela.

Before the household reappraisal conference I would wish to run into Angela once more but this clip entirely and outside the household place in an appropriate public topographic point leting for confidential conversation. A meeting room in our office or a java store could be agreed depending on where appropriate and Angela feels comfy. I would utilize this clip to let Angela show her feelings, ideas and emotions about the current quandary and her coveted demands. With this information I would construct on my model of appraisal. I would utilize the Steinberg ( 1993 ) resiliency theoretical account. This would let me to “identify strengths in the current state of affairs that can be harnessed when be aftering intervention.” Daniel, Gilligan & A ; Wassell ( 1999, p314 ) . This model could be presented to my squad leader to portion my apprehension of the instance and besides so that they could measure the rightness of my intercession schemes. A through-care program would be initiated to guarantee the resources are available and utilized to buffer Angela ‘s passage into early maturity ( Gilligan et al 2000 ) . I would inform Angela of my function as her advocator in the household reappraisal with the purpose of happening the best solutions for her and acquiring everyone else to hold upon them. Basically to stand for Angela ‘s involvements while esteeming those of powerful persons such as her Foster parents and societal systems such as the after attention bureau ( Payne 1997 ) .

A subsequent meeting or meetings may hold to be undertaken with Angela in order to finish this appraisal prior to the household conference. I would trust to set up these in the household place so as non to look to be insulating Angela from her surrogate household. These meetings will let me gather Angela ‘s feelings, desires and concerns about the current quandary and to measure her demands in order to accomplish a best pattern based result. This would besides let them all clip to acquire to cognize and hopefully swear me to some extent before the reappraisal. These meetings would besides be used to concentrate on Angela ‘s training/work options and turn to her ‘isolation ‘ and this will be discussed further in replying inquiries two and three.

I would besides larn of the household ‘s kineticss, ethos and power construction and could better my intercession scheme. After initial contact with the client and her household I can explicate determinations around what kind of services she really needs, by whom and at what required degree ( Coulshed and Orme, 2006 ) . Assessment is ever an on-going event and it would be up to me as her societal worker to derive an apprehension of Angela in her environment. “A human being is portion of a society” Payne ( 1997 p.137 ) . This would besides necessitate taking into consideration facts such as her age, degree of adulthood, relationships with surrogate family/biological household, equals etc. A biopyschosocial theoretical account would be utilised. Using this information I would pull up a study sketching “risk, demand and resources” Davies ( 1994, p 151 ) . This would be used to explicate a program.

I would reach the after attention worker and thank them for their work to day of the month. I would besides remind them that I am new to the instance and would truly appreciate any aid they could offer in lending to an result based on the best involvements of the kid. Their professional input would be recognised by ask foring them to the instance reappraisal where every bit good as hearing about their services and positions we could all make some kind of proactive via media that accommodates Angela and her surrogate parents. I would remind them of their of import function in aftercare under the guidelines of the Child Care Act 1991. Though aftercare support is n’t guaranteed under this Act after the age of 18 if Angela is still in instruction so we would hold strong grounds to back up her instance if necessary. Besides overall as a squad we could measure and implement schemes in audience with Angela, her surrogate household, other professionals, her birth household and each other in order to accomplish the best possible long-run header schemes for the client. Ideally she will remain every bit long as possible in her surrogate place but that programs can be agreed upon now in readying of her eventual moving on ( Wells 2005 ) .

The key to this scenario is I believe Orla, the Murphy ‘s biological girl. At 20 old ages of age she ‘s slightly proved her independency by prosecuting her instruction off at university. Angela gets on with her and in some ways appears to draw a bead on to her academic art through her dedication to analyze. Their friendly relationship is a really of import fond regard in Angela ‘s life ( Daniel, Gilligan & A ; Wassell 1999 ) . I believe she could be utile to recommend on behalf of Angela at the instance reappraisal. This would do the whole experience less dashing for Angela cognizing person she trusts is at that place on her behalf or at least understands her as a equal.

If possible and if appropriate and in understanding with Angela I would wish to affect her aunt and other important biological household members in this instance conference. With Angela acquiring older and fixing for independency every bit good as prior confused fond regards I believe it really of import for her to redevelop these links ( Coleman et al 1999 ) . This so as to understand and come to footings with her household dislocation but besides in order to re-establish bonds with siblings. Again this has to be constructed in the context that the assignment does n’t province why she was originally put into attention, why the arrangement with the aunt broke down or why relationships with siblings were non maintained. The instance notes and inquiring Angela of class will convey me up to rush on the grounds why and her feelings and desires around same. One must be to the full cognizant that “children in attention are non easy parted emotionally from their household of beginning. As I have observed elsewhere, ‘you may take the kid out of the household but you can non take the household out of the child’” ( Gilligan 1995 ) .

My function would be focused on measuring and implementing a program of action with Angela ‘s best involvements and demands to be met. Resilience, the stableness of the current arrangement and the formation of a through-care program are my cardinal aims ( Gilligan et al 2000 ) . Equally good as recommending and authorising I would work in unison with her Foster parents, household and others to brace her arrangement while promoting their continued proactive engagement in run intoing her primary demands ( Maslow 1967 ) . Preparation for eventual go forthing attention with effectual execution of after-care supports will be met in audience with Angela and all stakeholders ( Pinkerton and McCrea 1999 ) . This planning will recognize the of import function of surrogate carers in this procedure. By holding to ends and building solutions instead than encompassing negatives meaningful alteration will ease in building get bying schemes and best long term results for Angela.

How would you seek to guarantee that Angela was good briefed on options/support in footings of study/training/work after she reaches 18?

As portion of her through-care program I would utilize our meetings both single and with the after-care squad and household to discourse her involvements and options. By using these people, her equals, local and on-line resources we could offer Angela a clearer apprehension of what she wants to make after her school completion. The procedure needs to be ecological. I will speak more throughout this essay on how these assets can be used to profit Angela. Resilience will be focused on and encouraged ( Gilligan et al 2000 ) . Her self-esteem must be nurtured and I will work on authorising her in readying of taking on a class of farther survey or employment after completing school. Teachers have said she is making good at school and more capable than she believes herself to be so this needs to be realised and instilled. I want to dispute any erudite weakness theory ( Seligman 1975 ) . By logically measuring Angela ‘s strengths through duologue I intend to do her comprehend her untapped and unacknowledged abilities and open up to her many future calling options. She has expressed some involvement in being a attention helper or hairstylist. I will research information on both of these callings so she has a fuller image as to their suitableness and sustainability. I can besides organize work experience if she wants it.

Angela fears non acquiring adequate points in her Leaving Certificate yet her instructors say she is capable. There is still the option of a PLC class if she is unsuccessful in obtaining the needed points. If Angela agrees I would wish to set up a meeting with her calling counsel counselor to work on her strengths and unconditioned resiliency ( Saleebey 2002 ) . By admiting her frights and listening to her we could build realistic end puting based on logical apprehension and the world that Angela is more capable than she imagines herself to be. This will let her to visualize more chances and aspire to follow preparation or a calling in line with her abilities, involvements and cognitive operation. During agreed place visits her surrogate carers could be farther motivated to promote Angela to carry through her academic potency.

Orla could give an enlightening treatment around her university experience and Angela would be encouraged to inquire inquiries in order to measure whether or non her involvements lay at that place. Schaffer ( 1996 ) explains the importance of equal, sibling and friend fond regards in determination devising. These friendly relationships contribute to resilience during household troubles which I will research more in replying the last inquiry ( Daniel, Gilligan & A ; Wassell 1999 ) . My ain experience of university, assorted national and international colleges and varied callings before societal work could besides be used to inform Angela of different acquisition and work environments. This might besides take to triping an otherwise untapped option she might be interested in. Evaluating Angela ‘s front-runner and best topics at school would besides let us better whether academic or a vocational calling best suits her. Booklets from colleges, developing constitutions and universities can be requested or assessed online so Angela can shop at her leisure while offering her full liberty over her future picks.

It does n’t province it in the assignment remit but as the surrogate household is on a farm 30 stat mis from the metropolis it is extremely likely that Orla will hold to populate outside that place in order to handily transpose to university. This is a extremely important factor in supporting Angela ‘s instance for liberty and independency if she so wishes when older. Paradoxically as surveies have shown the older she is when go forthing attention the better her opportunities of making good in ulterior life ( Kelleher and Kelleher 1998 ) , ( Wells 2005 ) . Harmonizing to Wells though a good instruction and on-going fond regard to the former Foster household will increase the immature individual ‘s opportunities significantly in doing the passage from childhood to adulthood. Orla ‘s significance can non be underplayed here. Even though a non-biological older sibling she is an of import characteristic in Angela ‘s life and this fond regard should be efficaciously encouraged and utilized.

There may be issues around her obtaining developmental mileposts based on the physical and psychological inaccessibility of her birth parents ( Daniel, Gilligan & A ; Wassell 1999 ) . The Foster carers could work with authorising Angela in this context and add to her resilient accomplishment base every bit good as go oning to offer fondness, congratulations and stableness. Some cardinal schemes as outlined by Smith ( 1994 ) include me garnering informations and being to the full cognizant of Angela ‘s accomplishments and capablenesss for subsequently developing and/or employment. I would necessitate to open up avenues to increasing her employability and to guarantee these methods are flexible to her current and future fortunes.

By accessing local and national resources such as FAS for a hairdressing class or colleges for instruction I would be more likely to prolong Angela ‘s involvement in doing and following through on her picks. By associating in with the after-care squad such concerns as adjustment and fiscal assistance could be looked at and structured for the hereafter. Hence a support bundle, information and backup program can be formulated good in progress of being necessary. I could inform her of grant entitlements and costs involved in go toing university every bit good as the pros and cons as I ‘ve perceived them as a recent pupil. Kieffer ( 1984 ) argues how empowerment facilitates in accomplishing a better self-concept and higher degree of assurance. These are of import long term benefits for Angela ‘s hereafter.

The cyberspace is besides an first-class resource and by organizing a list of utile web sites for Angela to look up she could put about researching countries that involvement her at a degree she feels comfy with. After contemplation she could inform us of options she would wish to larn more about or use for. Interview techniques could be practised with her and a CV drawn up if she seeks employment. Support and encouragement can be given for completion of her CAO application if she chooses that path.

By using the surrogate household and her biological household more options might be conceived and nurtured. Gilligan et Al ( 2000, p.103 ) emphasis how household are a “hugely under-used resource” . The importance of listening to Angela about what she wants can non be under estimated ( Gilligan 2000 ) . He notes this as a therapy towards undertaking hardship and issues around ego regard. The voice of the immature individual is paramount in all determination devising and service planning. “Listening to kids non merely respects their rights and self-respect, [ but ] encourages their capacity for self look and promotes their development” ( Gilligan 2000, p.42 ) . Concrete ends can be formulated by indentifying Angela ‘s built-in accomplishments and strengths. They can be achieved by committedness from her surrogate household, others, outside bureaus and me. Her ain resiliency and strengths would be nurtured by associating to such a envisioned scenario and I can admit and remind her of her strengths and capablenesss ( Saleebey 2002 ) .

By encompassing the strengths based perspective Angela ‘s vocabulary of strengths ( Saleebey 2002 ) can be mined for current and future usage. Saleebey states these will ease authorization, resiliency, mending and integrity, through a suspension of incredulity and offer a discourse of duologue and coaction in her life book. We must finally give Angela our powers so she can take control of her ain life in maturity. By encompassing local and external resources and working in partnership with Angela so her calling aspirations can go a world. By offering counsel and security every bit good as motive and authorising her, myself and the squad can join forces with Angela in offering the best chances for personal and calling development. These accomplishments added to her current resiliency and strengths will do the passage into maturity more manageable and offer her security and options for employability and income in the hereafter.

Through these optimised webs of societal support I can prosecute with Angela through the procedure transmutation from dependance to mutuality ( Payne 1997 ) . In puting about the docket as outlined above I must ever see the clients right to self finding and must equilibrate this against my direct pattern in order to stay ethical ( Dolgoff et al 2000 ) . Angela can be given information and encouragement by me, co-workers and her household but must be allowed do her ain determinations. My aim is to place and clear up her ends within partnership.

How would you work with Angela, the Murphy ‘s and anyone else you think is relevant to turn to this possible issue of Angela ‘s ‘isolation ‘ ?

First I would n’t desire to presume that Angela is isolated. I would speak to her and ask for her ideas and feelings so as to measure and research the state of affairs farther. On analysis of the informations presently presented to me though several factors do take to propose that she ‘s slightly detached from wider support webs. She has no contact with her biological parents or siblings and if appropriate I would work towards re-establishing those links as Angela approaches maturity. “Attachment relationships with the household organize the foundation for other societal contacts” Daniel, Gilligan & A ; Wassell ( 1999, p.241 ) . The skewed world of this paradigm may be at the root of Angela ‘s current solitariness and isolation so it is of import to look into mending this dislocation. As they live in the interior metropolis they may go outstanding in her life if she is situated at that place while working or go toing college. At least if they do n’t it will be an chance to work through painful ideas, memories and beliefs around these separations and add to the foundations of her unafraid base with her surrogate household.

Unfortunately Angela had to go forth her arrangement with her aunt but there is still occasional contact so this could be used to measure the possibility of developing on future household relationships. Young people will research friendship fond regards with equals from a unafraid base of fond regard to parents ( Feeney and Noller 1996 ) . Their surveies show that the quality of a relationship with 1s parents may impact the quality of a relationship with their equals. Obviously that relationship is presently disjointed so it would be of import to try to mend this so Angela can travel through this phase in her development. Her surrogate parents could offer surrogacy if this attack fails. Currently she may be leery and of the sentiment that love is ever followed by loss ( Daniel, Gilligan & A ; Wassell 1999 ) . She ‘s already experient loss from her parents, siblings, household place, arrangement in her aunts, friends while turning up, assorted surrogate places and her surrogate sister. Her damaged fond regard experiences must be addressed, understood and worked through in order to keep a secure individuality formation.

She expresses the belief that she has ‘no existent friend ‘ but does acquire on good with Orla. This relationship floundered slightly with Orla go forthing the household place to set about a class of survey at university. Though presently separated they are still close and should be encouraged to keep this friendly relationship as Angela enters adulthood. There is besides the opportunity that Orla might still be go toing university or life in a metropolis that Angela chooses to analyze or work in. This nexus would be a really of import initial support buffer for Angela as she settles in to the early phases of independency. It is of import to work on this and the development of other future friendly relationships as these bestow resiliency when confronting future hardship. Orla offers a safety cyberspace.

Zastrow & A ; Kirst-Ashman ( 2001 ) argue that kids who have small involvement from parents face more trouble and hardship in the passage into maturity as they lack construction or a values gage. Whereas kids whose parents are excessively protective face troubles such as fright of presuming duties or doing of import determinations for themselves. These contrasting yet likewise detrimental concepts can be avoided by working with Angela and her parents and surrogate parents by admiting her strengths and authorising her to do and develop new support friendly relationships.

“Empowerment is non a technique but a end and a process” ( Thompson 2006, p.175 ) . It ‘s of import to value Angela ‘s unity and singularity. Opportunity needs to be offered to her in order to accomplish her full potency. Populating on a farm would perchance go forth her stray from socializing and run intoing with her equals. She ‘s besides at an age that she can non lawfully thrust. Besides the fact that she has few involvements outside survey reduces her opportunities of run intoing others. This may besides impact her societal development. Options and picks could be offered on look intoing her avocations and involvements to detect ways of take parting in wider society outside her family. I could research local nines and groups that she might be interested in fall ining. Her school may besides hold activities after lessons that could be explored during the meeting with her calling counsel instructor. These activities would besides heighten resiliency ( Gilligan 1999 ) . These ‘turnaround people & A ; topographic points ‘ ( Saleeby 2002 ) can be used to demo Angela she has unconditioned resiliency by being an ally to her. By playing to her strengths in this manner they could promote her edifice of outside caring relationships as future support webs. I would utilize exclusion and esteem inquiry to promote Angela ‘s ego assurance.

Equally good as being open in her current ends from the instance survey presented Angela appears a inactive receiver. Equally good as being empowered with cognition, assurance and self-esteem her degrees of assertiveness could be improved upon. In order to promote her resiliency I could what Payne ( 1997, p.273 ) calls “Organise the bureau to be unfastened to participation” . Angela can be encouraged through this to be the organizer and provoker of her ain after-care program way. By affecting her in this ecological systems theory her ability to efficaciously interact with people and her environment will be nurtured. By larning from experience her societal competency will spread out.

Strong relationship bonds with siblings can be good in so many ways while turning up from offering company to guidance and more. Angela lost this fond regard on go forthing the household place and traveling to the state. The remit of this piece does n’t province if she has brothers or sisters but if she has it would be of import to re-establish these links. This would assist in deciding many separation issues and would besides open up a new universe of societal contacts. In traveling into attention and off from her interior metropolis birth place she besides lost contact with her childhood friends. By doing contact with her siblings links may besides be made in retrieving some of these friendly relationships.

A pet might be utile as a manner of doing an emotional recovery from solitariness. This would authorise Angela with duty and offer her company at the same clip. One can merely conceive of what impact parental rejection has had on her personal ego image. If appropriate and possible it would be good to organize a meeting with Angela and her birth parents to discourse and explicate their grounds for her traveling into attention and to reply any inquiries she might hold. This would be utile so she can turn to her feelings around this rejection and prevent these from damaging subsequently relationships.

Decisions

As the worker on this instance I need to be cognizant of this socially constructed state of affairs. All of these participants must be involved for a specific intent. In consequence to plan, construct and keep a unafraid support base for Angela. With the associated strengths and authorization this will move as a springboard in doing the successful passage from adolescence into maturity and independency. The overall attack affords me a visual image of non seeing her peculiar issues as absolutes. I need to acknowledge that there may be more than one cause and more than one solution. “Different societal work theories generate different apprehensions of human behavior and societal situations” ( Davies 2008, p.93 ) . By being a reflective and automatic practician I will offer the client a best instance intercession scenario.

Bibliography

  1. Cashmore, J. & A ; Paxman, M. ( 2006 ) . ‘Predicting after-care results: the importance of ‘felt ‘ security ‘ Child and Family Work11. 3, 232 -241.
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  5. Daniel, B. Gilligan, R. & A ; Wassell, S. ( 1999 ) . Child Development for Child Care and Protection Workers. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers Ltd.
  6. Davies, M. ( 1994 ) . The Essential Social Worker. Aldershot: Arena.
  7. Davies, M. ( 2008 ) . The Blackwell Companion to Social Work. Oxford: Blackwell.
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  9. Feeney, J. & A ; Noller, P. ( 1996 ) . Adult Attachment. London: Sage Publications.
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  13. Gilligan, R. ( 1999 ) . Enhancing the Resilience of Children and Young People in Public Care by Mentoring their Endowments and Interests. Child and Family Social Work 3,1, 13-15.
  14. Gilligan, R. & A ; Kelly, G. ( 2000 ) . Issues in Foster Care: Policy, Practice and Research. London: Jessica Kingsley Ltd.
  15. Harris, O. & A ; Janzen, C. ( 1997 ) . Family Treatment in Social Work Practice. USA: Peacock.
  16. Johnson, L. & A ; Yanka, S. ( 2001 ) . Social Work Practice: A Generalist Approach. Boston: Pearson.
  17. Maslow, A. ( 1967 ) . Toward a Psychology of Being. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  18. Kelleher, P. and Kelleher, C. ( 1998 ) . Out on Their Own -Young People Leaving Care in Ireland. Dublin: Focus Point.
  19. Kieffer, C. ( 1984 ) . ‘Citizen Authorization: A Developmental Perspective ‘ . Prevention in Human Services 3 ( 1 ) :9-36.
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  21. Payne, M. ( 1997 ) . Modern Social Work Theory. Chicago: Secondary school.
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  23. Pinkerton, J. & A ; McCrea, R. ( 1999 ) . Meeting the Challenge? Young People Leaving Care in Northern Ireland. Aldershot: Ashgate.
  24. Saleebey, D. ( 2002 ) . The Strengths Perspective in Social Work. Boston: Pearson.
  25. Schaffer, H. ( 1996 ) . Social Development. Oxford: Blackwell.
  26. Seligman, M. ( 1975 ) . Helplessness: On Depression, Development and Death. San Francisco: Freeman.
  27. Smith, C. ( 1994 ) . Partnership in Action: Developing Effective Aftercare Projects. Kent: RPS.
  28. Steinberg, L. ( 1993 ) . Adolescence. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  29. Thompson, N. ( 2006 ) . Anti-Discriminatory Practice. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
  30. Wells, J. ( 2005 ) . ‘What Happens to Young Care Leavers? ‘ MSC in Child Protection and Welfare Dissertation, TCD.
  31. Zastrow, C. ( 2001 ) . Social Work with Groups: Using the Class as a Group Leadership Laboratory. California: Brooks/Cole.
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  33. Zastrow, C. ( 2004 ) . Introduction to Social Work and Social Welfare: Empowering Peoples. California: Brooks/Cole.

Legislation

  1. Child Care Act 1991
  2. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.irishstatutebook.ie/1991/en/act/pub/0017/index.html
  3. Child Care ( Amendment ) Act 2007
  4. hypertext transfer protocol: //europeanaffairs.ie/documents/bills28/acts/2007/a2607.pdf

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