Poverty and homelessness can be explained through single, familial, cultural, and structural characteristics. While some of the characteristics of homelessness and poorness may be alone to geographic locations, either rural or urban, a set of interconnected fortunes are common to poverty and homelessness. Poverty works its ego out through several tracts – wellness and nutrition, quality of the place and occupation environment, parental emphasis and mental wellness, resources for acquisition, lodging jobs, and hapless quality vicinity or communities where disregard, physical and sexual maltreatment are likely to happen ( Seccombe, 2007 ) . These factors in bend influence kids ‘s IQs through malnutrition ; kids and young person may hold less stimulation in the place and less emotional heat from their parents and more autocratic reactions from parents. Young people may take over their female parent ‘s duties, sabotaging their educational attainment. Many hapless households live in moistness, overcrowded, toxin-filled lodging in both rural and urban countries. Finally, hapless households may go stray in certain vicinities or countries within a community where these interrelated fortunes further play out in several households and persons around them ( Seccombe, 2007 ; Wilson, 1987 ; Huston & A ; Bentley, 2009 ) .
More frequently than non, those who are hapless in the US are individual parent, minority households with minimum instructions ( Huston & A ; Bentley, 2009 ) . These features can be found in both rural and urban environments, particularly as more immigrant households reside in and travel into rural communities. Experiences related to child attention, household construction, minority position, and drug usage represent jobs that were one time thought to be chiefly urban issues but are besides characteristic of rural countries. Drug maltreatment is a job in urban and rural countries, particularly meth usage in rural countries. Peoples trade sex for money in both urban and rural countries ( Edwards, et Al. twelvemonth ) . Both urban and rural hapless parents have lower investings ( i.e. outgos on resources for development ) in their kids ensuing in negative results for kids. The deficiency of resources creates stress which can be household strain associated with parent emotional troubles, and punitory parenting ( stress prompts uneffective rearing schemes ) . This, in bend, influences young person ‘s societal emotional wellbeing ( Dearing, Berry, & A ; Zaslow, 2006 ) . Furthermore, homelessness is related to a similar bunch of experiences.
Homeless young person may go forth their household because of several household issues, including disfunction, struggle, punitory parenting, parent disregard, parent divorce or separation, and physical, sexual, and emotional maltreatment ( Mallet, Rosenthal, & A ; Keys, 2005 ; Kidd, 2006 ) . Homeless young person typically experience more neglect, struggle, and abuse within their households compared to youth who are non stateless ( Whitbeck, Hoyt, & A ; Bao, 2000 ) . Parents of homeless young person typically employ less monitoring, nurturance, and supportiveness. Lack of parental heat and supervising lead to poorer results in young person. Parental nurturance and subject are two critical parent features related to young person ‘s results that both homeless and hapless young person experience less. Such experiences lead homeless young person to a feeling of being trapped and excessively many commit suicide ( the taking cause of decease for stateless young person ) ( Kidd, 2006 ) . These ancestors lead young person from both urban and rural environments to homelessness. These young person may see homelessness within their households or they may take to go forth on their ain, shacking on the streets in urban instances or residing up with friends or neighbours or in collapsible shelters in rural environments. Incidences of past familial physical and sexual maltreatment are highly high for homeless young person ( Kidd, 2006 ; Whitebeck & A ; Hoyt, 1999 ) . Extreme degrees of parent-youth struggle can take to destructive relational results ; these results frequently prompt the option of being homeless over resident life either by the parent or the young person ( Lerner & A ; Steinberg, 2004 ) . During a young person ‘s adolescent old ages, parents play a important function as young person experience more independency but still necessitate parental support. While young person ‘s individualities are being formed and their sense of liberty is emerging, young person still necessitate familial support. Many homeless youth lack this sense of support and sometimes have left place because this country of support was non adequately run into in the first topographic point. Additionally, substance maltreatment exacerbates already bing struggle in the household and household statements and physical maltreatment are higher when drugs are used by parents ( Whitbeck & A ; Hoyt, 1999 ) . Substance maltreatment is an interconnected experience for households in poorness and homelessness in both urban and rural environments ( Fitchen, 1991 ) .
Homeless youth frequently employ several schemes to last. They may implore, merchandise sex for money or nutrient and/or exchange drugs. These are non stray experiences to urban young person ( Edwards, et Al. twelvemonth ) . Homeless young person besides have less entree to wellness attention which causes farther challenges related to their physical and mental wellness jobs stemming from their unsmooth backgrounds ( Ensign, 1998 ) . Homeless and hapless households and young person, urban and rural, are surely affected by cumulative disadvantage, a layering of restraints related to chances and features, including personal, familial and societal structural features throughout a life-time ( Dannefer, 2003 ) .
As homelessness and poorness portion many of the same aforesaid characteristics for those populating in rural versus urban environments, homelessness and poorness in a rural environment may besides hold a few alone features compared to urban scenes. Rural households and young person probably have less entree to services than in many urban countries. First, persons and households may be limited in their entree to services merely because of geographic distance. A stateless shelter may be housed in a larger town that serves many environing smaller towns. Finding transit to these services airss challenges particularly for young person who are populating on their ain. My apprehension is that several services in rural countries besides require parental consent for young person or they must advise parents for the young person to take advantage of these services ; this is the instance with the Jackson Street Youth Shelter in Corvallis and for a shelter in Roseburg? ( Edwards, et Al, twelvemonth ) . Many young person may non desire to tie in with their parents because of troubled backgrounds curtailing the manner youth entree these services. In urban environments, young person are typically allowed to be more anon. as they use such services. Besides, it may be harder for rural households and young person to entree equal nutrient. Less expensive options for nutrient may non be in many rural communities. This coupled with a deficiency of services that provide nutrient for those in need consequences in many persons who are nutrient insecure in rural countries.
Rural households and young person may prosecute informal webs more for support than institutional services. Furthermore, rural communities may non acknowledge homelessness for young person or households as a job in their communities whereas most metropoliss recognize homelessness because it is more seeable ( Fitchen, 1991 ) . In rural countries, it may look that homelessness is non a frequent happening because of a comparatively little figure of people confronting this job. However, if communities consider the proportion of people in a homeless state of affairs to the population, the proportion may resemble a similar proportion to urban countries. Homelessness may look hidden in rural countries because households or young person may duplicate up in dawdlers without others in the community knowing ( Fitchen, 1991 ) . These persons may non even place as homeless. Additionally, community leaders in rural countries might non desire to acknowledge homelessness as a job as they do non desire the services they would so necessitate to supply to pull more stateless people to their community.
The school environment may besides be different for hapless and stateless young person in rural communities as opposed to urban countries. Schools in low-income urban countries are frequently fraught with jobs. US schools are tied to the income profile environing the school ; therefore, low-income schools frequently have limited resources, high teacher turn-over rates, and low student-teacher ratios and many are over-crowded. These factors may besides act upon pupils ‘ low aspirations as they continue in school ( Taylor & A ; Graham, 2007, Kozol, 1991 ) . Many rural young person may see similar barriers because of limited resources for instruction. However, in rural communities were all the young person attend the same school, there may be more investings from wealthier households in the school as upper to take down category pupils are all served in the same educational system ( Duncan, 1999 ) . For these communities, the school environment can go a buffer to the rough experiences a young person may meet at place. Adult supports and resources found within the school can probably help these young person, if the young person remain in school. Homeless young person staying in school is less likely and intercessions to maintain these young person in school must be employed.
Furthermore, many urban vicinities have a high per centum of kids comparative to grownups, diminishing grownup monitoring and increasing equal interactions for young person in these countries. This ratio frequently leads to negative results for young person ( Sampson, 2006 ) . Rural countries may see this to a lesser extent, though this may be found in pockets within the community such as nomadic place Parkss.
Overall, there are several spreads in the literature ( every bit far as I understand and have researched which has non been excessive ) turn toing the country of rural homelessness in peculiar. Research on homelessness in rural countries poses more methodological issues because many of the homeless are more concealed and elusive than in urban countries. There are besides fewer entry points to derive entree to the homeless. Fewer services exist and there is less entree to the services that do be. These services are frequently where research occurs or at least Begins with stateless people in an urban scene ( Kidd, 2004 ) . Furthermore, merely understanding what homelessness looks like in rural countries is needed. Classifying different life agreements and understanding how and when people classify themselves as homeless in rural environments is of import. The populating agreements of homeless in rural countries is likely different from the urban opposite number. Understanding the mechanisms related to homelessness in little communities where there would be apparently more community monitoring is of import. Understanding how precisely certain people go unnoticed and why they go unnoticed should besides be explored. Furthermore, understanding how to break support schools in rural countries to cover with issues related to homelessness and poorness is indispensable as these establishments may be the primary entry point to assisting young person. Research on how to use effectual transit schemes to make out to homeless and hapless households should besides be pursued. Understanding how lodging aid plans could go more outstanding and guaranting there is low-cost lodging for lower pay workers in rural communities is an country ripe for research.
Peer webs related to homelessness is really of import for step ining and understanding homelessness in young person. These peer webs become a critical portion of societal support for young person and turning these equal webs into positive instead than negative associations is critical for young person ( Kidd, 2004 ) . How this looks and works in a rural environment is unknown.
Furthermore, greater apprehension of the stigma associated with being homeless in rural countries is of import. The tie to one ‘s place is a mark of citizenship in the US and many people in our state are denied this piece of citizenship through homelessness ( Arnold, 2004 ) . As people become more compassionate toward homelessness and poorness, there may be more effectual services offered, similar to services in states such as Germany ( Tompsett, et Al. 2003 ) . Peoples in many European states have more empathic positions toward the hapless and homeless. Therefore, understanding the barriers to compassion and exposing myths related to poorness and homelessness is indispensable. This may be particularly of import in smaller communities where a greater sense of societal coherence can happen in a smaller environment. Furthermore, people in poorness and who are stateless are more likely to utilize services when they perceive less stigmatisation from staff ( Christian & A ; Abrams, 2003 ) . Therefore, plans that emphasize authorization and protagonism should be employed ( Osborne, 2002 ) .