In the survey, analyzing the ecotourism chances in KA±yA±koy town of Vize territory of KA±rklareli state situated on the northwesterly Turkey, the consciousness of the local people and their role-expectations in this topic have been determined and the perceptual experiences of the local people towards the environmental, socio-cultural and economical effects of ecotourism have been exposed. In parallel with this intent, it was aimed at looking for an reply to inquiries of “ What might be effects of ecotourism in the rural country? ” and “ what would be sentiments and parts of the local people sing the creative activity and development of ecotourism? ” . The judgements of the local people towards effects of ecotourism were explored through study method and factor analysis was conducted. As a consequence of the survey, it was revealed that the country has important ecotourism potency and the local people have a positive attitude towards ecotourism planning to be developed. Six factors act uponing ecotourism were determined at the terminal of the factor analysis.
Tourism has long been considered as a possible agency for socio-economic development and regeneration of rural countries, in peculiar those affected by the diminution of traditional agricultural activities. Peripheral rural countries are besides considered to be depositories of older ways of life and civilizations that respond to the postmodern tourers ‘ pursuit for genuineness ( Urry, 2002 ) .
Tourism development was seen by all those involved as holding the possible to use local natural resources to diversify the local economic system and touristry can be a powerful tool for successful economic development on a local and national graduated table. ( Horn and Tahi, 2009 ; Ecotourism Australia, 2008 ) .
In this range, ecotourism, harmonizing to the International Union for Conservation of Nature ( IUCN ) , is “ environmentally responsible travel and trial to comparatively undisturbed natural countries, in order to bask and appreciate nature ( and any attach toing cultural characteristics – both past and present ) that promotes preservation, has low negative visitant impact, and provides for beneficially active socio-economic engagement of local populations ” ( Fennell, 1999 ) . Ecotourism is a signifier of natural resource-based touristry that is educational, low-impact, non-consumptive, and locally oriented: local people must command the industry and have the majority of the benefits to guarantee sustainable development. ( D’Angelo et al. , 2010 ) . Ecotourism comes with a definitional promise to advance responsible travel to natural countries, to do a positive part to environmental preservation, and to heighten the wellbeing of local communities ( Angelica et al, 2010 ; Honey, 2008 ) Therefore, ecotourism focal points on the local civilization of a certain part ( country ) every bit good as the natural beauty, the geological construction, the natural flora and the zoology ( Masberg and Morales, 1999 ) , and is a touristry type which includes the topics of preservation natural countries, instruction, economic addition, qualified touristry and engagement of local people ( Benzer KA±lA±c , 2006 ) . Ecotourism offers benefits for local occupants, preservation support, low-scale development, low visitant Numberss and educational experiences ( Nepal, 2002 ) . Ecotourism has attracted increasing attending in recent old ages, non merely as an option to mass touristry, but as a agency of economic development and environmental preservation ( Schaller, 2010 ) .
In this range, in order to be successful at and prolong ecotourism activities, which local people and natural environment are at the centre, first it is needed to cognize better the values of the people and the societal environment. This demonstrates that in opening an country to ecotourism it decidedly requires to get down with local organisation and local people instruction ( May, 1991 ) . As Drumm and Moore ( 2002 ) suggest, a good planning depends on active engagement of relevant groups. Since local people would be the group that would impact and would be affected largely by ecotourism, proviso of their power and engagement would be important. In many surveies conducted late, excessively, how the developments experienced in the touristry were perceived by the local people have been analyzed and attitudes of local people towards effects of touristry have been examined ( Kuvan and Akan, 2005 ; Ko and Stewart, 2002 ; Yoon, Gursoy and Chen 2001 ; Teye, Sonmez and SarA±kaya 2002 ; Bertan 2010 ; Kiper ve Arslan 2007 ; Kiper, A-zdemir and BaAYaran 2009 ; Mohammadi, Khalifah and Hosseini, 2010 ) .
Certain rural countries depending well on stock-breeding and forestry have retrogressed quickly with the technological developments. This alteration has rebounded on the economic life manners and agricultural production. Therefore, uniting agricultural activities with diversion and touristry and transporting out programs all together affair within the range of both inspiring agricultural activities, of the bar of utilizing agricultural for non-agricultural intents and of the reunion of people, who left nature and production, with production procedures. In this way, the survey takes forms on the footing of sample field to be a beginning for ecotourism with the natural construction and cultural values. The field has a place to make chances for visitants to be personally involved in nature, to be familiar with farm life, to be actively and passively involved in assorted natural activities, and to be acquaintance with local-specific civilization. Harmonizing to the Ministry of Culture and Tourism Strategy of 2023 and 1/100.000 scaled Thrace Sub-region Ergene Basin Revision Environment Planning, the research field has been defined as a colony holding Agro-Eco touristry potency ( Ergene Environmental Planning and Tourism 2023 Strategy Plan, 2007 ) . This coincides with the specifying the local people in the touristry image of the part as ecotourism.
However, despite this possible, the economic construction of KA±yA±koy has been deteriorated increasingly and it has been immigrant part. Therefore, while the development of ecotourism types in the part has been obtained via this survey, options would be presented to supply economic addition for the local population, excessively. The survey is of import because it demonstrates the perceptual experiences of the local people towards the positive-negative effects of ecotourism in footings of environment, socio-culture and economic sciences. However, at the same clip this survey would be steering in footings of the creative activity of consciousness sing the conservation-improvement of natural and cultural values and sustainability of the beginnings. From this point of position the survey would be agencies to make reliable individuality in the development of ecotourism of the rural colony of KA±yA±koy and to be cognizant of unknown values, and it has revealed the power and outlooks of the local people.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The research stuff is composed of face to face questionnaires with the local people and observations in the research country, KA±yA±koy town, and the surveies on ecotourism.
KA±yA±koy town of Vize territory of KA±rklareli state forms the chief stuff of the research. KA±yA±koy is 96 kilometres off from KA±rklareli, 40 kilometres off from Vize and 164 kilometres off from Istanbul ( Figure 1 ) . It is composed of a centre and three small towns ( Aksicim, Balkaya, Hamidiye ) . Harmonizing to the 2000 nose count, the population of the metropolis centre is 1666, and the populations of the small towns are 827, and it is 2443 in entire ( hypertext transfer protocol: //report.tuik.gov.tr/reports, KA±rklareli Province Environment Report, 2008 ) . The economic system of the territory depends on stock-breeding, piscary and forestry.
The history and natural and folkloric values of the research field were demonstrated in Table 1.
Figure 1. Geographic place of the research country.
KA±yA±koy Cave at Table 1 is at 2 kilometres southern portion of KA±yA±koy and its length is 305 metres. The KA±yA±koy Cave has stalactite deposits in spots and there is Cave of Captain with rich stalactite accretions. The KA±yA±koy Castle dates to Byzantium epoch ( sixth century ) ( KA±rklareli Province Environment Report, 2008 ) .
Table 1. History, natural and folkloric values ( KA±rklareli Province Environment Report, 2008 )
HISTORICAL AND NATURAL VALUES
Archaeological heritage ( castle, undermine, bridge etc. )
Captain ‘s Cave
Religious constructions ( mosque, monastery etc.
Wood and Stone architecture compose alone character of territory architecture
Natural works texture
Pinus nigger, Quercus frainetto TEN, Quercus petraea MATTUSCHKA LIEBL, ( Quercus cerris L. volt-ampere. austriaca WILLD. , Acer platanoides L. , Acer pseudoplatanus, Fagus sp. , Tilia sp. , Ulmus sp.
Existing of natural wild animate being
Deer, wolf, Canis aureus, marten, fox, Wisconsinite, coney
I. Degree of Natural Protected Area
Protected Area of Nature
B. FOLKLORA°C VALUES
BoAYnak boreAYi, keAYkek, zerde, kacamak, A±sA±rgan boreAYi, kapama, coban boreAYi, A±sA±rgan otu corbasA±
The ecotourism survey was conducted in the country concluding that the effectual group would be the local people in using the obtained consequences to application. In this regard, the questionnaire non merely determined the outlooks from touristry of local community, but besides put forth their inclinations and socio-economic features.
In the finding of the sample dimension the given expression was adopted and 95 % dependability coefficient was taken as footing. The by and large applied regulation of ( P ) = ( Q ) = 0,5 in this type of samples was adopted. In this regard the largest possible sample with changeless trying mistake has been achieved ( May, 1991 ; Miran, 2007 ) . The trying expression is given below in item:
Ns: sample size
Nitrogen: chief mass size [ 2443 ( hypertext transfer protocol: //report.tuik.gov.tr/reports ) ]
= vitamin D / ( the discrepancy of the rate )
: dependability coefficient ( 1,96 )
vitamin D: sampling mistake ( 0,05 )
P: the possibility of the being of the targeted characteristic in the mass ( 0,5 ) Q: 1-p ( 0,5 )
Sing the research country, the figure of participants to be given the study was calculated as 93 people in the 95 % assurance interval.
Factor analysis, based on correlativities among many variables, is multiple-variable statistical analysis type which enables informations to be presented conceptually important ( explainable ) and in drumhead ( Joreskog and Reymont, 1993 ; Gorsuch, 1983, Rummel, 2002 ) .
The first measure of factor analysis by and large is to explicate correlativities between variables. The grade of a correlativity is used as correlativity coefficient. The correlativity matrix prepared demonstrates that there is a positive correlativity between the variables and that the correlativities within certain subgroups of the variables are greater than the correlativities among these subgroups. Analytic factor attack indicates whether the ascertained correlativities could be explained or non by the smaller conjectural variables ( Kim and Mueller, 1978 ) .
Factor analysis mathematically resembles a multiple arrested development analysis. Among the judgements 1s with certain characteristics are loaded to a factor and organize a group, and the informations are grouped sing the entire discrepancy. Whether the informations coincide with factor analysis is determined by Barlett testA of sphericalness and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin ( KMO ) trial. Barlett testA of sphericalness tests the chance of high correlativities among some of variables at least. Harmonizing to Barlett testA of sphericalness factor analysis should non be carried out if the hypothesis of “ correlativity matrix is unit matrix ” is non rejected ( Tucker and LaFleur, 1991 ) . Another index of correlativity between discrepancies is partial correlativity coefficient. Kaiser Meyer-Olkin ( KMO ) trial is an index which compares the size of the ascertained correlativity coefficients. KMO value is labeled as follows ;
really good if it is larger than 0.90
good if it is between 0.80-0.90
mean if it is between 0.70-0.80
and as unacceptable below 0.60 ( Pett et al. , 2003 ; Yavuz, 2007 ) .
In order to prove the dependability of the graduated tables used, Alpha ( I± ) ( Cronbach ‘s Alpha Coefficient ) theoretical account was used. This method analyzes whether thousand inquiry in the graduated table represents whole which demonstrates a homogenous construction. The coefficient valued between 0 and 1 is labeled as the Cronbach ‘s Alfa coefficient.
The dependability of the graduated table based on the Alpha ( I± ) coefficient was interpreted as below:
If 0.00 a‰¤ I± & lt ; 0.40 the graduated table is dependable,
If 0.40 a‰¤ I± & lt ; 0.60 the dependability of the graduated table is low,
If 0.60 a‰¤ I± & lt ; 0.80 the graduated table is pretty dependable,
If 0.80 a‰¤ I± & lt ; 1.00 the graduated table is extremely dependable one ( KalaycA± et al. , 2005 ) .
In the survey sing besides the stages of informations aggregation based on literature cognition and the field observations and study ratings, SWOT analysis was conducted for jobs, potencies and restraints.
Findingss obtained from the studies were analyzed under the five chief rubrics as findings on the socio-economic construction, the natural-cultural features of the survey field and awareness grade sing agricultural touristry and the 1s sing the agricultural touristry potency of the research field.
The Findings Regarding Socio-Economic Structure
The information sing socio-cultural features of people attended to the study were given in Table 2.
Table 2. The socio-culturel characteristics of the participants
Socio-cultural Feature of Participants
Percent ( % )
Socio-cultural Feature of Participants
Percent ( % )
Income state of affairs
1000 TL and the lower portion
1001 TL and above
Primary School and the lower portion
Agriculture – Animal Husbandry
University and its above
Member of Family
4 and the lower portion
The low degree of instruction in the research field ( 68,8 % ) is really unreassuring. The sizes of households are largely ( 55,9 % ) less than 4 members. 52,7 per centum of the attenders are between 26 and 50 ages, and 72 per centum of them have degree of income under 1000 TL. When we look at the distribution of beginning of income, it is seen that merely 15,2 per centum of them are engaged in agribusiness and stockbreeding. This is because a clear bulk deficiency field ( 68,8 % ) and 35,3 per cent deficiency animate being. 31,2 per cent of 1s with land work for 11 old ages or more and by and large households provide the labour. Poaching and marine pollution have resulted in the lessening of figure of households populating on piscary ( 16,2 % ) .
Whereas the lower grade of the possibility of consideration the bulk of the attenders to be active labour, really low degree of income and limited beginning of income like agriculture-stockbreeding are refering, this active population could be considered to be positive in footings of the creative activity of chance of employment for ecotourism.
Finding sing the grade of consciousness towards the natural cultural features of the research field
The outlooks of the attenders sing the precedences for the development of the research field were presented in Table 3.
Table 3. Development Priorities of KA±yA±koy
Agriculture – Animal Husbandry
Percent ( % )
Percent ( % )
Percent ( % )
Percent ( % )
Harmonizing to Table 3, when the attenders were asked “ what are the precedences for the development of KA±yA±koy? “ , touristry came the first by 48,4 % and agribusiness and stockbreeding were followed by 21,5 % . Here that agribusiness and forestry are the beginnings of income of local population have an impact on the precedences. The local people are largely engaged in stockbreeding. However, the stockbreeding is kind of little household concern. Furthermore, forestry is popular, excessively. The local people are besides occupied with non-wooden wood merchandises ( mushroom, medicative workss ) .
When the attenders were asked what the touristry types would be developed in their part, ecotourism came foremost by 67,7 per cent ( Figure 2 ) .
Figure 2. Tourism image of the research country.
Findingss sing the consciousness towards ecotourism
The attenders chiefly consider that the sentiments and attending of the local people are of import ( 48,4 % ) ( Table 4 ) . This indicates that they are fain and participative for ecotourism.
Table 4. Opinions about eco-tourism
Natural values must be alone
Socio-cultural values must be alone
Local direction is the first responsible endeavor
A Strong cooperation is a must
The sentiments and engagement of territory people are of import
Ecotourism can be understood as environmental, sociological and economic class. As economic class it can crucial contribute to sustainable rural development and it is at the same clip a motor of development. As sociological class it can lend to higher consciousness of public about importance of nature protection, at the same clip visitants have feeling that with their appropriate intervention contribute to protection and keeping. As economic class ecotourism assure publicity and selling of merchandises from protected countries like nature, cultural heritage, clean H2O, fresh air, local reliable merchandises ( besides from ecological agriculture ) . But all sort of touristry activities and their development should be adjusted with local population in protected ( Udvoc and Perpar 2006 ) Therefore, the persons surveyed in ecotourism economic, sociocultural and environmental impacts were asked their thoughts about.
The attenders consider that ecotourism will economically pull new investings to the part and will make new occupation chances. This state of affairs coincides with the limited occupation chances in the part and with holding possible to be evaluated in footings of employment ( Table 5 ) .
Table 5. Economic consequence of eco-tourism
New chances for employment can be composed
New investings come to part
Diverseness can be provided for agricultural merchandises
Life standarts rise
It supplements adult females employement
The quality of agricultural production rises and in quality production has its existent value
Table 6. Socio-cultural effects of eco-tourism
Internal migration happens with touristry
Festival etc. activities rise
It supplements intersectoral cooperation
The convention and tradition of territory country are affectional factor for the part
Conventional civilization is lived by protected
Table 7. Environmental effects of eco-tourism
The affectional factor of part rises
Natural texture is protected
The chances of underwork and bodywork rise
Table 8. Negative effects of eco-tourism
Conventional life manner alterations
The decays of natural resource happen
Transportation denseness rises
Ocular and noise pollution go on
Environmental pollution rises
Hotel, motel or other uses cause environmental decays
Feasible population rise effects local peoples ‘ day-to-day life in a negative manner
While the attenders by and large thin towards ecotourism sing the part to be a centre of attractive force socio-culturally and environmentally, they consider that it has an negative impact on transit and population denseness ( Table 6,7,8 ) .
Evaluations of the Judgments of the Attendants Sing the Effects of Ecotourism on the Region by Factor Analysis
Factor analysis was used to measure the judgements of attenders about the effects of ecotourism on the part. In the research the judgements of attenders about environment were measured utilizing 5 point Likert graduated table. The dependability of the graduated table was measured by Cronbach ‘s Alpha and because this value was determined near to 1 ( 0,855 ) , the graduated table was accepted dependable.
In order to prove conformance of judgements with the factor analysis, the statistics of KMO and Barlett trial ( Bartlett ‘s Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square ) were used. The KMO ( Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy ) value was determined 0,767. The values between 0,70 and 0,80 were labeled as “ mean ” ( Figure 3 ) .
Figure 3. KMO and Barlett trial statistics
The consequences of the factor analysis applied were presented in Table 9. Harmonizing to this, 22 variables were gathered in six factor groups. Harmonizing to the consequences, the first group was named “ economic effects ” . This group includes the effects like new investings to the part, occupation chances, and adult females employment. Besides, physical, environmental and negative socio-cultural effects and in-migration consequence constitute the other factors.
Table 9. Factor matrix
Factors ( constituents )
New chances for employment
Festival etc. growing
Population denseness growing
High life standart
Contribution of adult females employement
Turning stronger intersectoral cooperation
The protection of natural texture
The affectional factor of part growing
Brisking of conventional life civilization
underwork and bodywork oppotunities growing
Density of transit
Environmental pollution growing
Formation of ocular and noise pollution
Density of structural uses
Diverseness for agricultural merchandise
The quality of agricultural production growing
The protection of local civilization
Change of conventional life manner
Change of locak peoples ‘ wonts
Decaies of natural resources
Exist of internal migration
Variance ( % )
Accumulative discrepancy ( % )
Two major attacks to the application of the rules of planning can be identified in the context of ecotourism. The first, which tends to be associated with more formal planning systems, places a considerable accent on the possible benefits of ecotourism development. Under this attack, the roleplayed by be aftering is to get the better of the physical and practical barriers to ecotourism development, thereby enabling the benefits associated with such activities to be experienced more to the full and more widely in the local community. The 2nd attack, which tends to be associated with the term ‘participatory planning ‘ , is more concerned with set uping and keeping a suited balance between development and planning restraint. As a consequence, local engagement is progressively being regarded as cardinal to the effectivity of the planning and direction of touristry.
SWOT analysis was performed based on the field observations carried out, the studies and literature reappraisal ( Prepared utilizing YDP 2010 ) . It is as follows:
The Strong Sides
High organic potency in animate being and vegetive production
Beekeeping activities considered to be within the range of ecotourism
Being of natural beginnings for ecotourism ( esplanades, manus line fishing, stud farms, diggingss e.g. )
Being of seashore to the Black Sea
Leting the chase of traditional life of assorted civilizations ( Bosnian )
Being of immature and active population
Undistributed natural and cultural landscape gardening values
The Weak Sides
Decreasing beginning of income from the wood
Lack of instruction and of consciousness of the local people sing touristry
Scarcity of agricultural lands
Lack of grazing land countries
Decreasing stockbreeding patterns
Increasing attending to ecotourism
Rising demands towards organic agribusiness and organic local merchandises
Strategic location as a gateway for the Trace due to its seashore to the Black Sea
Proximity to Istanbul
Disorganized and uncontrolled touristry activities
Over-expectations created by touristry activities
Menaces to be posted on aquatic life ( the building of a dike on Kazandere creek in order to supply H2O for Istanbul )
As it is besides seen in the consequences of SWOT analysis, the part was considered to be have possible due to the grounds like being one of the richest countries of Turkey in footings of vegetations and zoologies, the proviso of non-disturbance of the country comparing the other parts of Turkey, assorted of course turning medicative and aromatic workss, profusion of wildlife Silvius alpinus, Chrysops caecitiens, Philipomyia graeca, Atylotus loewianus, Atylotus quadriforius, Hybomitra caucasi, Tabanus bifarius syn. Dasytabia langa, Tabanus bromius, Tabanus eggeri, Tabanus glaucopis, Tabanus lunatus, Tabanus maculicornis, Tabanus portschinskii, Tabanus Prometheus ( KA±lA±c,1999 ) the copiousness of socio-cultural assets for ecotourism, and that certain parts of the country have different preservation statues like nature reserve country and natural protected country. This potency has non been utilised even though the local people thin towards this topic. In add-on to this, immature population ‘s attitudes to go forth the part, the limited degree of agricultural activities, the underdevelopment of agriculture-oriented industry, the deficiency of organisation of the manufacturers, the deficiency of position countries and the decreasing stock-breeding are besides among the jobs determined. If ecotourism is considered to hold economically, socio-culturally and environmentally positive impacts on the part, it is clear that it is decidedly necessary to use ecotourism potency.
The issue is sustainable usage and preservation. In the efforts of preservation ; the positions, sentiments and active engagements of the local people must besides be obtained. This is because a measure taken without sing conditions of the local people or the patterns act uponing their economic and sociological life manners might take to the worse consequences. Get downing from these, in all these patterns, policies and investings taking the precedences of the local people into consideration and doing them an active histrion would do protective and sustainable safeguards more active.
KA±yA±koy has stockbreeding, forestry, piscary and touristry oriented economic construction. Missing agricultural lands and being a town covered largely by trees cause passs in the economic system of the part. Besides, the jobs like aggregation of mushroom in an unconscious mode, the force per unit area of illegal graze in the wood and the poaching have been confronted. Poor agricultural productiveness and deficiency of agricultural lands lead people to the stockbreeding. Besides, increasing demand for carnal merchandises and civilization fishing regionally and nationally is a plus value for the part. Within this range economic sectors like active stockbreeding and piscary in the part should be integrated with the ecotourism sector. In order to manus down the natural and cultural heritage of the local people, who pursue their traditional life manners without losing cultural substructures, to the following coevalss, and to continue and measure within the range of ecotourism, consciousness raising plans should be carried out. In this context, the fact that ecotourism is an economic chance should be emphasized in order to continue the local people and civilization and to manus down a preserved nature to the following coevalss. Besides, it should be emphasized in the awareness-rising plans that an ill-planned, developing and unorganised touristry development might do perturbation of natural landscapes of KA±yA±koy, might endanger wildlife and biological diverseness, may do hapless quality of H2O beginnings, may take to the in-migration of local people and the eroding of cultural traditions. Within this range, some recommendations have been made to increase ecotourism chances to be developed in the research field. These are ;
Traditional production manners ( carnal merchandises like yoghurt, clotted pick, cheese ) should be arranged harmonizing to demands of ecotourism and should be integrated with ecotourism.
Forests have non contributed the territory economically. The forest countries should be preserved and evaluated within the range of ecotourism.
Flora expedition ( between May and September ) sportive trekking ( May-August ) in the country
Old houses should be preserved via housing and boutique hotel individuality in touristry.
Stockbreeding might be developed even if it will be at minimal degree. It is appropriate to give classs about environment and natural resources in schools.
Training undertakings sing saving, sustainable production and selling of the medicative and aromatic workss turning of course in the part ( daisy, centaury, wild pear, wild plum, rose hip, dock, common plantain, calcium hydroxide, salep, batch, Thymus, yarrow, forbearance dock, cranberry e.g. ) , of seed turning, of tree farming, of seedling turning and of biodiversity and endemic species could be developed. Besides, for participators guided Tourss should be arranged in the period between April and September.
With the objects of variegation of the beginnings of income of the people and of offering options, side income bring forthing beginnings in the countries particularly like ecotourism, organic agribusiness, agricultural merchandise processing and marketable workss turning should be put in pattern. In this range, the merchandises produced in the part such as honey, butter, buffalo yoghurt, cheese, egg, salmon, Bosnian pastry, baked murphy and the like could be served to the visitants.
Network sing preservation works among the authorities bureaus, universities, NGOs and private sector should be constituted and this web should be strengthened. Task sharing should be made among these establishments and organisations and the coordination should be ensured.
In decision, ecotourism activities which are non performed harmonizing to the intent, the rules and the features cause the perturbation in environmental, economic and socio-cultural Fieldss due to over-intensification to be occurred particularly in sensitive ecosystems like rural countries. Therefore, in order to supply sustainability in the ecotourism, it is necessary to cognize environmental, societal and economical effects of ecotourism activities and to see these effects during the planning. From this point of position, informing the local people, who are the most affected group by ecotourism, about the effects caused by the ecotourism to be developed in their part is chiefly of import.