Foundations In Social Policy Social Work Essay

Peoples aged 65 and older are the focal group to be discussed within this essay ; their demographic and societal factors investigated to build a representative observation of an elderly occupant in Australia. The chief focal point of the essay surrounds societal policy on income security and lodging for elderly people. A literature reappraisal conducted to foreground the relevancy, benefits and restrictions of the policies. Cardinal elements to be encompassed within the essay include Jamrozik ‘s ( 2009 ) theoretical model for analysis of societal policy and historical and modern positions reflecting on Jamrozik ‘s ( 2009 ) public assistance province and station public assistance province political orientation displacements and reforms.

The demographic profile of a conventional elderly individual – based on information from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, ( AIHW, 2007a, B ) , and the Australian Bureau of Statistics, ( ABS, 2009 ) ; is an Australian Born, educated, in-between category, retired female, with a life anticipation of 71.1 old ages. She lives in an urban country, near to the seashore with her hubby in their ain mortgage free place. Her income per two weeks is $ 582.40 from the age pension, and she portions a net worth of $ 734,000 chiefly dwelling of the household place and a auto with her hubby. She enjoys going and take parting in voluntary work, has a healthy life style ; with no serious physical, mental or medical damages. Social factors pertinent to her consist of keeping a broad societal web, regular contact with household and friends, and partaking in leisure, cultural, originative and recreational activities.

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Income security is critical for everyone but possibly more imperative to older people as they depart the work force cut downing their ability to gain income ( Ziguras, 2006 ) . In colonial times, destitution was an tremendous job for people who had no capital ; the ex-convicts, apprenticed laborers and hard up immigrants but particularly as they got older and could no longer work ( Hetherington, 2009 ) . During the nineteenth century Australian society had few resources, and small to no charitable establishments go forthing many older people to trust on household or the charity of others to last ( Hetherington, 2009 ) . It was non until Federation, and the embryologic development of societal public assistance policy, did it get down to alter for older people.

Over a century ago, in 1909, the Commonwealth Government of Australia superseded the 1900 State age pensions of NSW and Victoria ( ABS, 1988 ) by implementing its first signifier of income security through societal public assistance policy to guarantee the “ physical endurance ” ( Jamrozik, 2009, p. 61 ) of older people by presenting societal security payments, known as the Age Pension ( Fenna, 2004, Jamrozik, 2009 ; Ziguras, 2006, & A ; Herscovitch & A ; Stanton, 2008 ) , to enable older people “ societal operation in the market economic system ” ( Jamrozik, 2009, p. 61 ) .

Social policy, as identified by Fenna ( 2004 ) and Jamorik ( 2009 ) , is a procedure concerned with the allotment of society ‘s resources to profit persons to better their societal and economic competences in order to accomplish a criterion of life and guarantee entree to indispensable services.

At the Centre of societal policy lies the public assistance province ; Fenna describes the public assistance province as a model of authorities policies and plans designed to guarantee persons, as a right of citizenship, to hold acceptable degrees of economic public assistance and entree to necessary plans ( 2004, p. 323 ) The traditional end of the public assistance province was to supply income support to those unable to gain plenty in the labor market to run into their ain demands ( Saunder, 2000 ) .

During the public assistance province old ages the age pension was accepted as a province duty ; a universal and societal proviso entitlement, a committedness toward equality ; supplying a sensible criterion of life, paid from the surpluss of a free market economic system ( Jamrozik, 2009, p. 9 ) .

The age pension was non-contributory, non-discretionary and agencies and plus tested ( Ziguras, 2006 ; Herscovitch & A ; Stanton, 2008 ; Castles, 2001 & A ; Fenna, 2004 ) . It was come-at-able for most people over 65 old ages, provided they met making standards and was granted based on demonstrated demand ( Herscovitch & A ; Stanton, 2008 ; Ziguras, 2006 & A ; Raper, 2000 ) . There was a sense of holding contributed to it by paying revenue enhancements over their on the job life ; public support for pensions was high and it attracted small to no stigmatization ( Ziguras, 2006 ; Castles, 2001 ) ,

Pension were, and remain funded by general revenue enhancement gross, and a level rate of payment applied ; indexed to average male hebdomadal net incomes ( Fenna, 2004, & A ; Ziguras, 2006 ) . Income support histories for the largest point in societal outgo in a budget ( Jamrozik, 2009, p. 138 ) . The Australian authorities will pass 35 % of its $ 131.6 billion dollar budget on societal security and public assistance in 2012/2013, with $ 36,760 million spent on income support for the 70 % of Australians having the age pension ( Swan, 2012, statement 6, box 1 and table 3.1 ) .

The chief purpose of the age pension is to supply an equal safety net payment in order to run into the basic demands for endurance ( Jamrozik, 2009 ) . Harmonizing to Ziguras at that place has ne’er been a clear rational for the degree of income support payments, but the most cardinal purpose is for the bar of poorness ( 2006, p. 165 ) . Poverty has been at the nucleus of societal policy on public assistance payments with their primary aim to relieve poorness, and many of the societal security policy ‘s nucleus elements have non changed since 1909 ( Fenna, 2004, Jamrozik, 2009 & A ; Herscovitch & A ; Stanton, 2008 ) ; societal security system ‘s functionality contemplates persons and involvement groups, the orientation of peculiar authoritiess and alterations over clip ( Ziguras, 2006 ) . Mendes ( 2012 ) advocates societal and economic want and inequality are important influences on the prevalence of poorness, while McClelland ( 2010 ) suggests income support payments do non make poorness they assist people in poorness.

The age pension has undergone alteration and reform since Federation ( Jamrozik, 2009 ; Ziguras, 2006, ABS, 1988, & A ; Fenna, 2004 ) particularly when the renovation of the public assistance province began in the early 1970 ‘s ; the Labor authorities undertook significant, extremist alterations to travel off from primary public assistance and concentrated on societal ingestion and societal engagement ( Jamrozik, 2009, p. 80 ) The doctrine of societal protection and rule of entitlement gave manner to the doctrine of enablement and the rule of common duty ( Fenna, 2004, p. 319 ) .

Social policy on income security for aged people has endured important alteration and version over the old ages to accommodate altering societal conditions, to accomplish an equal criterion of life and a capacity to fruitfully pull off resources with the focal point of societal policy more closely linked to economic precedences and more market conforming ( Fenna, 2004 ; Zepezauer, 2004 & A ; Jamrozik, 2009 ) . The major constituent of the reforms impacting older people, was the creative activity, in 1985, of the authorities system of occupational old-age pension as income replacing and a move toward a self proviso of income in retirement ( Jamrozik, 2009, ABS, 1988, & A ; Fenna, 2004 ) .

Consecutive authoritiess through restructuring have instituted steps to keep and heighten old-age pension nest eggs, controlled age pension costs, relaxed plus and income trials and established revenue enhancement grants for old-age pension ( Saunders, 2002 ; Jamrozik, 2009 ; Herscovitch & A ; Stanton, 2008 & A ; Fenna, 2004 ) .

The gradual dismantlement has seen public assistance and income security no longer a societal right as societal policy. Over the last two decennaries, there has been an influence of good established cosmopolitan political orientations of neoclassical economic sciences and, neo conservativism, influenced by globalization, to alter and redefine public assistance in Australia ; ( Chenoweth, 2008 ; Mendes, 2012, & A ; Williams, 2000 ) . The construction of societal security policy for older people continues to be portion of an on-going and germinating procedure ( Jamrozok, 2009 ) . The age pension today reflects the station public assistance province minimalist attack with the province accepting inequality is natural, and the duty of the age pension as an unfortunate necessity, with selective entitlement and societal outgo reduced ( Jamrozik, 2009, p. 9 ) .

Jamrozik ( 2009 ) indicates that income security besides includes wellbeing, and for older people, their quality of life depends on the handiness of human and material substructure of services such as lodging and aged attention services. As we get older, lodging demands alteration, we may necessitate support to be able to go on to populate in ain place, or we may desire to travel into lodging more suited to our demands, and a sustainable degree of income is required ( Cavanaugh & A ; Blanchard – William claude dukenfields, 2011 ) ..

The proprietor occupied place is exempted from the agencies trial ( Ziguras, 2006 ) and traditionally older people prefer to stay in their ain milieus for every bit long as possible and lone expression to aged attention adjustment when they are forced to make so because of wellness or fiscal issues ( Jamrozik, 2009 ) Older Australians value stable, secure, low-cost adjustment that facilitates maximal degrees of independent life for every bit long as possible ( Cavanaugh & A ; Blanchard – William claude dukenfields, 2011 ) .

In 1995, the authorities introduced the Home and Community Care ( HACC ) plan designed to supply increased support for an expanded scope of support services such as place version and place attention for people to stay living independent lives in their ain places ( Jamrozik, 2009 ) . Community support policies and plans allow people who would hold spent the balance of their lives in residential attention scenes in the past, such as nursing places, to stay in ain place thirster ( Cavanaugh & A ; Blanchard – William claude dukenfields, 2011 ) .

Not all older people own their ain places. As people age, they experience assorted life passages associated with alterations in degrees of physical and economic independency, and personal circumstance, which may take to alterations in their life agreements and adjustment demands ( Cavanaugh & A ; Blanchard – William claude dukenfields, 2011 ) .

Problems of low income families in the private rental market and the handiness of low-cost lodging became a important issue early on after the Second World War ( Atkinson & A ; Jacobs, 2008 ) . To battle this, societal policy on lodging, concentrated on the Reconstruction and enterprises and the Commonwealth State Housing Agreement ( CSHA ) provided low involvement loans to the provinces for lodging undertakings such as public lodging ( Playford, 2001 & A ; Yates, 1996 ) . The Commonwealth lodging policy consists predominately around signifiers of fiscal aid, chiefly focussed on exciting the private lodging market ( Jamrozik, 2009 ) .

As clip progressed the private edifice industry became self-asserting and public lodging activity bit by bit restricted to supplying lodging entirely for low income families ( Yates, 1996 ; Atkinson & A ; Jacobs, 2008 ) . This led to public lodging shrouded in stigma and frequently viewed as a drain on resources ( Yates, 1996 & A ; Jacobs & A ; Arthurson, 2012 ) , and a failed enterprise that has accentuated poorness and societal disadvantage ( Atkinson & A ; Jacob, 2008 ) . Social policy, accidentally, through under investing in societal lodging and allotment of lodging to the most deprived and marginalised renters has reinforced a sense of societal division ( Jacobs & A ; Arthurson, 2012 ) . Yates ( 1996 ) , nevertheless, indicated that public lodging offers protection from poorness ; supply a physically equal degree of shelter and can supply security and stableness.

Over the resulting old ages, lodging policy and plans have undertaken accommodation to run into the affordability and increase handiness. Decentralisation, urban reclamation and environmental sustainability have all been at the bosom of societal policy and plans for lodging ( Playford, 2001 ) . The societal lodging policy provides the benefit to older people on low income support to populate independently either through societal lodging or aid in happening suited and low-cost lodging in the private market.

In decision, income security for older people has been available since the beginning of the twentieth century and has encountered minimum alteration and reform. The debut of the retirement income policy has seen the authorities take stairss towards older people holding secure hereafters. Housing policy has remained, per sec, stable since the terminal of World War Two and the handiness and affordability in the public lodging sector has assisted older people to accomplish suited adjustment. The debut of HACC has enabled older people to stay place longer through the proviso of services.

Australia ‘s population is ageing ; in 2009 the ABS projected that by 2056, older aged people will stand for 23-25 % of the population, and this presents possible financial challenges for authoritiess to supply plans, policies, and services that benefit the quality of life of the citizens ( Jamrozik, 2009, p. 1 ) . This prognosis is important when weighing up the hereafter demands of income support, lodging, wellness, aged attention and other service commissariats.

Housing additions easy, showing a challenge which will turn with the ageing population, current stocks will non be appropriate to run into the demands. Development of new lodging options to better run into the demands through greater diverseness of lodging options is required. Governments need to supply sufficient public and community lodging, non merely for current demand but to decrease the jutting hereafter force per unit areas for suited lodging, particularly for older people having low incomes.

The predicted mentality of the population flight will impact on all facets of societal and economic life as both the figure and proportion of older people in the community addition they accordingly impact on economic growing and authorities outgo such as the age pension and plans and services for older people.

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