Fulfillment of the WTO Accession Commitments

Fulfillment of the WTO Accession Committednesss

“ Made in China ” Reshaped the World Trade Pattern

13th November 2009 08:18 News Beginning: China Securities Journal

On 15 November 1999, China and U.S. signed the understanding on China ‘s accession to the World Trade Organization ( WTO ) , which officially ended the bilateral dialogues between the two states. U.S. was the main opposite negotiant in China ‘s entry into the WTO ; hence, China was numbering down the hours for going a member of the WTO.

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Over merely a decennary, China trade has hopped up, altering from a past perceiver into a game participant and so going a regulation shaper. Thus the planetary economic system portions the Gospel of “ made in China ” ; and the universe trade form has besides been changed due to the rank of this great state.

A Lengthy Road to Accession

Fifteen old ages saw the drawn-out dialogue, from the day of the month China rejoined the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade ( GATT ) to the day of the month that China finally acceded to the WTO.

On 10th July 1986, Qian Jiadong, the Chinese embassador in Genevese, filed an application on behalf of Chinese Government for recommencement of China ‘s rank as a GATT Contracting Party. From so on, China entered into the bilateral dialogues with GATT members. In 1987, a working party on China ‘s rank to GATT was established and the first meeting was conducted in Genevese, Switzerland to finalise the work agenda. In May 1987, the 7th meeting was held, finishing the assessment towards China ‘s foreign trade system. However, China did non acknowledge the acceptance of market economic system at that clip ; hence the recommencement was bogged down.

The province of personal businesss turned around in 1992. In the 11th meeting, the GATT working party decided to stop the scrutiny of China ‘s foreign trade system. In October, China and U.S. signedthe Memorandum of Understanding Between the Government of the People ‘s Republic of China and the Government of the United States of America Refering Market Accesssince when U.S. undertook to back up China ‘s admittance to be a GATT Contracting Party.

In January 1995, the GATT working party converted into a working party on China ‘s accession to the WTO after the GATT changed its name into the World Trade Organization ( WTO ) .

In the latter half of 1997, China reached bilateral understandings on its WTO accession with New Zealand, Korea, Hungary, Czech, Slovakia, Pakistan and other states ; and meanwhile, China ended bilateral market entree dialogues with Chile, Columbia, Argentina, India and many other states.

At this clip, the main opposite negotiant U.S. has non agreed on China ‘s WTO accession. The dialogues between China and U.S. were full of bends and turns. Harmonizing to the former main negotiant of China ‘s WTO accession, Long Yongtu, there were all together over 6,000 sorts of duty lines in the WTO understandings ; China was asked to explicate 5,000 of them by U.S. while merely several sorts were needed mentioning for other states. As can be imagined, how hard the dialogue was at that clip!

Under the support and mediation of China ‘s most high leaders, China ‘s dialogues in 1999 became more frequent. Our prime Zhu Rongji paid an official visit to the United States of America from 6th to 13th of April 1999, during which the most important and the toughest job between China and U.S. — “ Sino-US Agricultural Cooperation Agreement ” was signed on 10 April.

On 8 April 1999, The United States of America bombed the Chinese Embassy in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which overshadowed the good ambiance of the dialogue. China initiatively put forward suspension of dialogue for the first clip, till September the bilateral dialogue was resumed. After five yearss dialogue, on the 15th of November 1999, China and U.S. reached a bilateral understanding, which officially ended the bilateral dialogue between the two states. On the 14th of June 2001, China and U.S. reached comprehensive consensus on residuary jobs of China ‘s accession to the WTO ; on the 20th of June 2001, China and the European Union reached consensus on China ‘s entry into the WTO ; 13 yearss subsequently, the WTO members reached consensus, leting China to fall in the WTO in November. After 15 old ages drawn-out route to accession, on the 11th of December 2001, China eventually became a member of the WTO.

China ‘s Fulfillment of the WTO Accession Committednesss

After the WTO entry China performed its committednesss to open the market. In the country of trade in goods, the arithmetical mean duty rate for China ‘s imported goods dropped from 15.3 % in 2001 to 9.8 % today. Harmonizing to the understandings reached with the WTO, China ‘s duty rate has reduced dramatically after the open-up of agricultural merchandises. The duty rate of 977 sorts of agricultural merchandises contained in Schedules of Commitments on Goods and Services has reduced to an norm of 15 % , whereas the universe was 62 % . The grade of openness of Chinese agricultural merchandises has even exceeded many developed states including Europe and America. Foreign agricultural goods can acquire entree into China ‘s market straight.

In the field of trade in service, China has opened up over 100 sectors, which accounts for 62.5 % of the WTO categorized 160 sectors. After the passage period of China ‘s accession to the WTO, the fiscal services like banking, insurance, and securities industry have all fulfilled principled committednesss, including most-favored-nation-treatment, national intervention, market entree and other services. The grade of openness of China ‘s fiscal services has besides exceeded that of the WTO. For illustration, China did non accept the engagement of foreign investing in the A-share market when fall ining the WTO, but from the twelvemonth 2002, China initiatively adopted Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors ( QFII ) system, therefore leting permitted international investors to come in China ‘s market and spread out abroad investing quotas.

In a short few old ages after accession to the WTO, China has amended about 10 relevant Torahs every bit good as the directly-related foreign trade Torahs such asForeign Trade Law,Import and Export Inspection andQuarantineand etc. Harmonizing to the state of affairs of accession to the WTO and international pattern, China besides enactedLaw of the Peoples Republic of China on Funds for Investment in SecuritiesandBanking Supervision Law of the People ‘s Republic of China. In the interim, the State Council formulatedRules of Beginning( import and export ) andRegulationson the CustomProtectionof Intellectual Property Rights of The People ‘s Republic of China, and revised a set of disposal ordinances associating to the accession to the WTO such as Regulations on Anti-dumping. Just as what Yi Xiaohuai, frailty curate of commercialism, said: “ The rules advocated by the WTO have been widely known in China. ”

The Reshaped World Trade Pattern

After fall ining the WTO, rapid growing was registered in China ‘s foreign trade. China ‘s foreign trade has become an engine of China ‘s economic growing and besides go the modifier of the universe trade form.

China ‘s entire trade in 2001 came to U.S. $ 509.6 billion, but in 2008 it reached U.S. $ 2,560 billion which was 2,266 times every bit much as it was in 1950. China ‘s portion in international trade has besides increased from 0.9 % in 1950 to above 8 % in 2008. Despite the planetary economic lag has impacted on China ‘s foreign trade in 2009, China ‘s portion of foreign trade did non diminish for this ground.

World Trade Report 2009, which is issued by the WTO, says that China is going an engine of planetary economic growing. China would derive trade involvement at a faster rate at the clip when universe ‘s economic system took a bend for the better in 2009 under the counsel of emerging economic system. China will hopefully transcend Germany, turn outing to be the biggest exporter of ware in the universe.

As China ‘s export portion keeps lifting, China ‘s attractive force to foreign investing is restarting. Harmonizing toWorld Investment Report 2009issued by United Nations Conference of Trade and Development ( UNCTAD ) , China, whose GDP has increased about 8 % in the 2nd one-fourth, is the top pick for foreign direct investing.

China ‘s economic system, which maintains high growing, has contributed enormously to the universe ‘s economic system. The study issued by State Statistics Bureau shows that the part rate of China ‘s economic system to the universe accounts for 19.2 % in 2007 from 2.3 % in 1978. China ‘s part rate to the planetary economic growing has ranked the first in the universe.

What is more of import is that China has played an active portion in the “ games ” of the WTO. Changing from an perceiver of international trade ordinances, China will go a regulation shaper and redact of the games. China ‘s endeavors will no longer surround their choler ; alternatively they will exert the ordinances made by the WTO and protect their rights and involvements.

Lu Xiankun, China ‘s counsellor to the WTO, said that as a prosecution China had sued four difference declaration instances up till the terminal of May this twelvemonth ; as a defendant China had coped with 14 difference declaration strategies.

In September, U.S. imposed precautions on tyre imports from China. Therefore, China asked for dialogue with U.S. harmonizing to the WTO difference declaration points. This most discussed trade difference did non trip off a ferocious “ trade war ” between China and U.S. ; alternatively, it will be resolved under the world-wide-recognized trade dialogue ordinances.

What ‘s more, China besides utilized the many-sided trade phase actively and efficaciously to take part in the devising of international trade ordinances, gave drift to Doha unit of ammunition of trade dialogues and restrained protectionism. China has established a great state ‘s responsible image. After eight old ages ‘ accession to the WTO, China, a state bearing terrible strain of fiscal crisis, gives the universe such satisfactory replies. ( Reported by Lu Zheng )

Comment

This commentary chiefly presents the methods I adopted in doing the mark text cohesive and coherent from both micro- and macro-facets.

Before interpreting the ST into TT, I followed Nida ‘s three-stage system of interlingual rendition ( from Nida and Taber 1969:33 ) in which the first measure is to analyse the SL text. The given ST is a journal article with field prose, concise words, some complicated long sentences and nomenclatures and a few obscure deductions. With the mission of reproducing the significance and tone of the ST in another linguistic communication, I figured out the differences between the two linguistic communications and so employed relevant schemes.

The chief difference between Chinese and English is that the former emphasizes parataxis but the latter emphasiss hypotaxis. For this ground, word orders and sentence constructions are different in those two linguistic communications in footings of coherence and coherency.

Coherence

Coherence is the web of lexical, grammatical and other dealingss which provide links between assorted parts of a text.

( Baker, 1992:180 )

Concurrence is one of the five devices specified by Halliday and Hasan inCoherence in English( 1976 ) that we frequently use to keep coherence of the sentences. It expresses different dealingss. For illustration, linear relation ( and, or, like, etc. ) and causal relation ( so, hence, therefore, etc. ) .

In the TL text I used the method of supplementation of concurrences to do the tenseness between the sentences and paragraphs tighter.

Eg 1. ( ST L6-7 ) ? ? ? ? ? , ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? , ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? , ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? , ? ? ? ? ? ? ” ? ? ? ? ” ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

( TT L8-10 ) Over merely a decennary, China trade had hopped up, altering from a past perceiver into a game participant and so going a regulation shaper.

Therefore

the planetary economic system portions the Gospel of “ made in China ” ; the planetary economic system portions the Gospel of “ made in China ” ;

and

the universe trade form has the universe trade form has

besides

been changed due to the rank of this great state. ( Linear and Causal dealingss added for coherence of sentences ) been changed due to the rank of this great state. ( Linear and Causal dealingss added for coherence of sentences )

Eg 2. ( ST L11-13 ) 1986? 7? 10? , ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

( TT L15-17 ) On behalf of Chinese Government, Qian Jiadong, the Chinese embassador in Genevese, filed an application for recommencement of China ‘s rank as a GATT Contracting Party on 10 July 1986.

From so on,

China entered into the bilateral dialogues with GATT members. ( Temporal relation added for coherence of sentences ) China entered into the bilateral dialogues with GATT members. ( Temporal relation added for coherence of sentences )

Eg 3. ( ST L86 ) … .. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? WTO? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? , ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? , ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? , ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

( TT L119-121 ) … …

What ‘s more,

China besides utilized the many-sided trade phase actively and efficaciously to take part in the devising of international trade ordinances, gave drift to Doha unit of ammunition of trade dialogues and restrained protectionism. ( Linear relation added for coherence of paragraphs ) China besides utilized the many-sided trade phase actively and efficaciously to take part in the devising of international trade ordinances, gave drift to Doha unit of ammunition of trade dialogues and restrained protectionism. ( Linear relation added for coherence of paragraphs )

Besides the supplementation of words ( lexical degree ) , the other method I use to heighten coherence is the restructuring of sentences ( syntactic degree ) .

1. acceptance of prenominal clause

Eg 1. ( ST L18-19 ) ? ? 10? , ? ? ? ? « ? ? ? ? ? ? ? » , ? ? ? ? ” ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? “ ?

( TT L24-27 ) In October, China and U.S. signedthe Memorandum of Understanding Between the Government of the People ‘s Republic of China and the Government of the United States of America Refering Market AcceUS Secret Service

since when

U.S. undertook to back up China ‘s admittance to be a GATT Contracting Party. U.S. undertook to back up China ‘s admittance to be a GATT Contracting Party.

Eg 2. ( ST L32-33 ) 1999? 5? 8? , ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

( TT L46-47 ) On 8 April 1999, The United States of America bombed the Chinese Embassy in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia,

which

overshadowed the good ambiance of the dialogue. overshadowed the good ambiance of the dialogue.

2. Decoding-Encoding the long sentences

Harmonizing to Nida and Taber ( 1969 ) , cardinal constructs of Chomsky are surface construction, deep construction and meat sentences.

Languages agree far more on the degree of meats that on the degree of the more luxuriant constructions. This means that if one can cut down grammatical constructions to the meats degree, they can be transferred more readily and with a lower limit of deformation.

( Nida and Taber, 1969:39 )

Chomsky ‘s generative-transformational grammar, I find, is really utile particularly when rendering long and complicated sentences.

Eg 1. ( ST L82-83 ) 9? , ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? WTO? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

It ‘s non easy to acquire the significance of this sentence even when I read the Chinese version. The author put everything into one sentence which, really, contains two significances. One is U.S. imposed precautions on tyre imports from China. The other significance is China wanted to negociate with U.S. harmonizing to the WTO difference declaration points. The clip was September. It ‘s difficult to happen the kernel sentence of the original sentence because of the genre of the text and the characteristics of the linguistic communication ( field and concise ) . In this instance, what I do is to split the long sentence into short 1s harmonizing to the sense. Therefore, this sentence can be translated into:

( TT L114-115 ) In September, U.S. imposed precautions on tyre imports from China. Therefore, China asked for dialogue with U.S. harmonizing to the WTO difference declaration points.

Coherence

The major difference between coherence and coherency is that the former is related to lexical and grammatical dependences of linguistic communication, but the latter refers to conceptual or intending dependences as perceived by linguistic communication users.

( Hoey, 1991:12 )

The author of the SL text, as I perceived, tried to convey three significances to the readers: the hardness of China ‘s accession to the WTO ; the accomplishments China has made, and China ‘s great possible and bright hereafter. After calculating out the author ‘s purpose and attitude, I made some alterations in my interlingual rendition when I was doing the concluding alteration.

First, in order to show the difficult procedure of China ‘s accession to the WTO, I put most of the Time Words at the beginning of the sentences to stress the “ drawn-out route ” China has gone through harmonizing to Mona Baker ‘sThematic construction: marked V unmarked sequences( Baker, 1992:129 ) . A simple illustration is:

( ST L10 ) ? ? ? ? ? ? 15? , ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

( TT L13-14 )

Fifteen old ages saw the drawn-out dialogue,

from the day of the month China rejoined the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade ( GATT ) to the day of the month that China finally acceded to the WTO. from the day of the month China rejoined the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade ( GATT ) to the day of the month that China finally acceded to the WTO.

Second, in order to show the accomplishments China has made after fall ining the WTO, I personally wrote out the author ‘s connotative significance.

Eg. ( ST L88 ) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? , ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?(? ?)? ? ? ?

After offering the readers with so much information and information, the author ‘s connotative significance is that China does n’t do the universe down. The determination for acknowledging China to fall in the WTO is right. Because of Chinese people ‘s traditional “ modestness ” , the author merely omitted the word “

satisfactory

” which was perceived and added by me. ( TT L123 ) ” which was perceived and added by me. ( TT L123 )

Third, in order to show China ‘s strength and potency, at the beginning of this article I translated “ ? ? “ ( ST L6-7 ) into “

great state

” instead than “ large state ” . ( TT L10-11 ) ” instead than “ large state ” . ( TT L10-11 )

In decision, a good interlingual rendition should reproduce the significance and tone of the beginning text explicitly, particularly for intelligence or diary articles. It should be in a field manner with concise words and nonsubjective position, and at the same clip, those words and constructs should maintain the readers traveling on without acquiring confused or lost. At this point, coherence and coherency of the mark linguistic communication are really of import factors to do the readers feel natural, foreign or unacceptable. Thus transcribers should organize the wont of utilizing simple words to maintain the tone of the text and altering certain sentence constructions to do the construct of the mark linguistic communication consistent.

Mentions

Baker, M. ( 1992 )In Other Wordss: A Coursebook on Translation, London and New York: Routledge.

Fawcwtt, P ( 1997 )Translation AND Language: Linguistic Theories Explained, Manchester: St. Jerome.

Munday, J. ( 2008 )Introducing Translation Studies: TheoriesandApplications, London and New York: Routledge, 2nd edition.

Newmark, P. ( 1981 )Approachs to Translation, Oxford: Pergamon.

— — — – ( 1988 )A Textbook of Translation, New York: Prentice Hall.

Nida, E. A. ( 1964a )Toward a Science of Translating, Leiden: Tocopherol, J. Brill.

Nida, E. A. and C. R. Taber ( 1969 )The Theory and Practice in Translation, Leiden: Tocopherol, J. Brill.

Nida, E. A. ( 2001 )Language AND CULTURE Contexts in Translating, SHANGHAI FOREIGN LANGUAGE EDUCATION PRESS.

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