Live in a hard water area

Introduction:

We live in a difficult H2O country ; this has effects on the pureness and efficiency. I am traveling to look into the pureness of the H2O by look intoing H2O samples in different countries and comparing them. Then I will look at descalers and see how efficient they are at battling H2O hardness, and eventually compare this to the acidic trial taken. I performed a figure of trials for which I tested pH, nitrate, aluminum, material trial, phosphate and boiling trial. Overall I am proving how pure the H2O in the country is.

Background Information

I gathered background information to add information to my probe.

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Acid:

  • Tastes sour, are caustic to metals, alterations litmus ( a dye extracted from lichens ) red, and becomes less acidic when assorted with basses ( alkalise ) . Ph: 0 – 6.9

Alkaline:

  • Feels slippery, alterations litmus to blue, and becomes less basic when assorted with acid. Ph: 7.1 – 14

Impersonal:

  • Ph: 7, e.g. H2O, intoxicant

Cations:

  • A positively charged ion which has fewer negatrons than protons.

Anions:

  • A negatively charged ion which has more negatrons than protons.

Ph Scale

The pH graduated table is something made to set acids and alkalise into topographic point, and tells the differences. You can prove the pH of something utilizing cosmopolitan index which is beads you put into a liquid and compare the color alteration of the liquid, the other is litmus paper, and you dip this into the liquid and compare the color alteration.

Metallic elements and non-metals

Metallic elements:

  • Normally 1-3 negatrons in outer shell
  • Form oxides that are basic
  • Have lower electorates
  • Good electrical music directors and heat music director
  • Can be beaten into thin sheets ( ductile )
  • Can be stretched into wire ( Ductile )
  • Solid at room temperature

Non- Metallic elements:

  • 4 – 8 negatrons in their outer shell
  • Form negatrons that are acidic
  • Good oxidizing agents
  • Have higher electro negatives
  • Poor music directors of heat and electricity
  • Brittle if solid
  • Transparent as a thin sheet
  • Solid, liquid and gasses at room temperature

Electrolysis

  • Electrolysis is the interrupting down of H2O atoms into O and H gas due to an electric current. Industries use this procedure when H is needed. The H gained through electrolysis is dual that of O.
  • Electrolysis of pure H2O is really slow and merely occurs because of ego – ionisation of H2O ( This is where ions are collected with water ) .

Difference between concentrated and thin

If concentrated:

  • High dissolver %
  • Low dissolver %

If dilute:

  • Low dissolver %
  • High solute %

Different types of pollutants in the H2O

Microorganisms:

  • Bacteria, viruses, parasites and other micro-organisms are sometimes found in H2O Runoff, or H2O fluxing over the land surface, may pick up these pollutants from wildlife and dirts. This is frequently the instance after deluging. Some of these beings can do a assortment of unwellnesss. Symptoms include sickness and diarrhoea. These can happen shortly after imbibing contaminated H2O. The effects could be short-run or really fatal.

Fluoride:

  • Fluoride is helpful in dental wellness ; so many H2O systems add little sums to imbibing H2O. However, excessively much ingestion of of course happening fluoride can damage bone tissue. High degrees of fluoride occur of course in some countries. It may discolor dentitions, but this is non a wellness hazard.

Radon:

  • Radon is a gas that is a natural merchandise of the dislocation of U in the dirt. Radon is most unsafe when inhaled and contributes to lung malignant neoplastic disease. Although dirt is the primary beginning, utilizing family H2O incorporating Radon contributes to promote indoor Radon degrees. Radon is less unsafe when consumed in H2O, but remains a hazard to wellness.

Nitrates and Nitrites:

  • Although high nitrate degrees are normally due to human activities, they may be found of course in land H2O. They come from the dislocation of nitrogen compounds in the dirt. Flowing land H2O picks them up from the dirt. Drinking big sums of nitrates and nitrites is peculiarly baleful to babies ( for illustration, when assorted in expression ) .

Ph trial

Equipment list:

  • 250ml beaker
  • Litmus paper
  • Ph graph
  • Water sample

Procedure:

  1. First fill the beaker half manner with the H2O sample
  2. Following dip the litmus paper in the beaker
  3. Following comparison the color alteration with the pH graph
  4. Repeat for all H2O samples

Observations:

From my consequences I have found on norm the Maidstone portion of the river I tested was the most impersonal, while Rochester and East Farleigh are more alkalic, these could hold a little affect on wellness.

Observations:

From my consequences I have found that the Maidstone portion of the river and east Farleigh portion I tested was somewhat alkalic, while Rochester was more impersonal, these could hold a little affect on wellness but nil severe.

Equipment list:

  • 10cm mensurating cylinder
  • Water sample
  • Iron sulfate
  • Test tubing
  • Sulphuric acid

Procedure:

  1. Measure 3cm of H2O sample into mensurating cylinder so pour into trial tubing
  2. Measure 3cm of Fe sulfate into the measurement cylinder and so pour into trial tubing
  3. Then eventually add 3cm of sulfuric acid into trial tubing
  4. If a brown ring signifiers, dividing the beds, so nitrate is present
  5. Repeat for other H2O samples.

Observations:

As I poured sulfuric acid into the solution of Fe ( 2 ) sulfate and suspected nitrate solution, the trial said that as you mix the sulfuric acid a brown bed would organize. Alternatively of a brown bed organizing a xanthous bed appeared. This showed there was a clear bed ensuing in nitrate being in the solution.

This set of consequences showed nitrate was really present as a factor in the H2O, this trial does non demo how much was at that place. I did n’t happen this trial really accurate.

Equipment list:

  • Nitrate trial kit
  • Water samples

Procedure:

  1. Measure 5ml solution provided into the provided measurement tubing
  2. Following step a spoonful of white pulverization with provided spoon and add to tube
  3. Following add one bead of H2O sample to tube and agitate gently
  4. Leave for 5mins
  5. Compare with coloring material on nitrate coloring materials grid
  6. Repeat for all H2O samples.

Observations:

This set of consequences measured the measure of nitrate in the H2O ; my consequences merely showed all the samples were really similar. The nitrate degree in all the samples were at a low criterion, and was safe for imbibing, if the sum of nitrate in the H2O was higher this could do harm to wellness as excessively much nitrate reduces the sum of O carried by ruddy blood cells.

Aluminium trial

Equipment list:

  • Aluminium trial kit
  • Water samples

Procedure:

  1. Add H2O sample to prove tubing given, 2cm from top
  2. Add tablet 1 and crush, so agitate good
  3. Add tablet 2 and crush, so agitate good
  4. Leave for 10 mins
  5. Compare colour alteration with aluminum graduated table
  6. Repeat for H2O samples.

Observations:

The consequences for the aluminum trial showed that scarce sums of aluminum were present, this showed that the H2O was besides safe in this factor, nevertheless if there was a high sum of aluminum present so this could do harm to wellness such as links to steel harm.

Fire trial

Equipment list:

  • Bunsen burner
  • Evaporating dish
  • Water sample
  • Tripod gauze
  • Tongss heat cogent evidence mat
  • Equipment for fire trial

Procedure:

  1. First set up Bunsen burner and topographic point tripod over the burner, so topographic point gauze on top of tripod, topographic point heat cogent evidence mat under Bunsen burner.
  2. Topographic point vaporizing dish on top of gauze straight over Bunsen burner
  3. Add H2O sample to vaporizing dish and furuncle until there is adequate residue left buttocks to make flame trial.
  4. Repeat these stairss for all H2O samples.

Observations:

The trial showed there was both Ca and K nowadays, although there were really small sums. The effects of high sums of K is muscle failure and depression, while high sums of Ca presence in H2O is really good for castanetss and dentitions while really high sums can do tegument and grinders to gnaw.

Phosphate trial

Equipment list:

  • Phosphate trial kit
  • Dirt sample

Procedure:

  1. Add filter disc to bottom of trial tubing provided
  2. Add 0.5ml dirt sample into the underside of trial tubing provided
  3. Add solution provided until 2ml grade
  4. Add pulverization provided, half a spoon full, with spoon provided
  5. Topographic point cap on beaker and soft shingle for 10 seconds
  6. Immediately record coloring material alteration with that of coloring material confab provided
  7. Repeat these stairss for all the different dirt samples

Observations:

I found from my consequences that the sum of phosphate in the all the H2O samples was below norm. The sum of phosphate depends on what type of harvests you want to turn. Besides high degrees of phosphate can do kidney failure and be linked to the decrease of Ca. However the consequences show merely a bantam sum of it was present which does n’t truly present a menace to wellness.

Boiling trial

Equipment list:

  • Bunsen burner
  • 250ml beaker
  • Water samples
  • Tripod
  • Gauzes
  • Tongss
  • Heat cogent evidence mat
  • Thermometer
  • Stopwatch

Procedure:

  1. Measure 100ml of H2O sample in beaker
  2. Topographic point beaker on top of Bunsen burner and heat
  3. Topographic point thermometer in beaker
  4. Start stop watch
  5. Record clip taken for H2O to make 100 & A ; deg ; C
  6. Record temperature of when H2O begins to boil decently
  7. Repeat stairss for all H2O samples

Observations:

In this trial I found the boiling point of the different H2O samples and the different times it took for them to make 100 & A ; deg ; C. This trial proved if it took longer for the temperature of each H2O sample to make 100 & A ; deg ; C so there were more things in the H2O which had affected it. My consequences show that East Farleigh H2O was the about purest at 4:00:07 compared to Rochester at 4:42:06. I did prove distilled H2O to utilize as a comparing, but that besides has belongingss within the H2O which affected the trial.

What high trial consequences would demo

Ph:

The pH of the organic structure has to be at a balance, impersonal ( 7 ) if this is changed so many of the organic structure ‘s maps are profoundly affected, e.g. impacts unsusceptibility, digestion, bone strength, symptoms of joint disease, endocrines, and map of internal variety meats.

Nitrate:

Worlds of six months and older can easy devour big sums of nitrate from their nutrient and drink, nevertheless for kids of six months and younger it can do nitrate toxic condition. This occurs as a consequences of the digestive system being extremely under developed doing nitrate to alter to nitrite which is toxic.

Aluminum:

Aluminum is normally known as a guiltless compound as it is found in the Earth ‘s crust, nevertheless big measures can do serious affect to wellness. Some symptoms linked with high exposures are ; harm to the cardinal nervous system, dementedness, loss of memory, languor and terrible shaking.

Flame test – Ca:

No links with high degrees of Ca doing affects to wellness has been proven all though a few have been brought to treatment, e.g. high blood force per unit area, bosom harm and Mg lacks.

Flame test – K:

Potassium has many maps in the organic structure, it helps modulate musculus activity, smooth musculuss and other maps but high sums of K in the organic structure can do serious jobs. E.g. hyperkalemia.

Phosphate:

High degrees of phosphate are non every bit common as the others, but the lone existent links with high degrees of phosphate consequence in Ca degrees going high and besides proteins being changed, which so has more side effects on the organic structure.

Evaluation

My probe was to prove the quality of H2O for the river Medway. In making so I have found the different belongingss degrees in my consequences happening at different points across the river.

The benefits of my probe that I under took is that I can clearly see the different degrees of atoms in the river, such as nitrate degrees, phosphate degrees, pH and even aluminum. Each experiment that I under took was really just merely altering the one factor either dirt or H2O. Besides each experiment under taken was done with all the necessary safety equipment and right setup for each single trial.

In making a ph trial I managed to happen the different sournesss and bases at three different points of the river, the consequences were nil abnormal.

I managed to make two different types of nitrate trial to acquire a assortment of informations, one trial was done utilizing different chemicals, and this proved upwind nitrate was present in the H2O. After making this first trial I found that it showed nitrate was present but non clearly, so I done another type of nitrate trial which was much clearer, this involved proving the H2O sample with 2 tablets from the nitrate trial kit. After making this 2nd trial I managed to happen the degree of nitrate at the three different parts of the river.

Following I decided to make an aluminum trial, this was reasonably simple as it was all under taken by the usage of an aluminium trial kit, and this showed low hints of aluminium nowadays.

Further trials I took were the flame trial. This was a spot slippery as I evaporated the H2O sample it merely left behind scarce sums of residue, so this involved making the vaporization period 4 times to acquire adequate sufficient residue to prove for. Another job came when I was really firing the stuff, alternatively of being a really clear coloring material alteration there was a really minimum shade which lasted a twosome of seconds, this nevertheless did turn out the presence of Ca and K.

The following trial that I under took was the boiling trial. This trial was undertaken to turn out whether there was a sufficient sum of stuffs in the H2O from old trials, as boiling temperature increased it meant that stuffs were more and more present, same for the H2O sample making boiling point the quickest. In comparing my consequences showed that the stuff presence was minimum and does non present a menace.

The concluding trial I done was a phosphate trial, this was with the usage of a phosphate trial kit, this was a complicated trial as different residues and pulverizations had to be assorted to see a clear phosphate degree. After all the stairss I found the phosphate degree was instead normal to other H2O types, the lone job with this trial was that comparing the coloring material alteration at the terminal as the coloring material had to be taken immediately after agitating because within 10 seconds it was wholly the opposite coloring material which could hold thrown my consequences.

To better my consequences and the scope of informations I would hold done each type of trial three times. This would hold given me a much wider scope of consequences to what I have now. Through this advantage I would hold been able to do more comparings and links in the information.

If I could better my consequences I could hold gathered dirt and H2O samples from another river off from the Medway, besides I would hold liked to prove the H2O and dirt for other types of things such as Mg and lime graduated table, and if so the sum of lime graduated table impacting the country, all this and the opportunity to run more than 2 trials for each experiment to acquire a even balance of dependable consequences.

Comparing the Hardness of Water Test

Introduction:

In my probe I am seeking to happen upwind H2O hardness in and around the country, is lasting or impermanent. This is because as so many chemicals such as Mg, aluminum and other belongingss such as sulfates are added to the H2O they make it difficult. I will run a just few trials to see if boiling H2O samples affects the sustainability of the difficult H2O.

Standard soap solution: A known sum of soap dissolved in a given volume of aqueous intoxicant.

Trash: A precipitate formed by reaction between soap and aqueous Ca and Mg.

Equipment: Comparing hardness of H2O

  • Water sample
  • 250cm stopped conelike flask
  • 50cm burette
  • 50cm mensurating cylinder
  • 250cm beaker
  • Tripod and gauze
  • Bunsen burner
  • Standard soap solution

Procedure: Comparing hardness of H2O

  1. Make a hazard appraisal for all jeopardies involved in this experiment
  2. Fill the 50cm burette with standard soap solution
  3. Using a measurement cylinder put 50cm of H2O sample into a 250cm conelike flask
  4. From the burette add 1cm soap solution at a clip and agitate smartly for 10 seconds. If a bed signifiers for 2 proceedingss so the H2O sample is soft H2O, if scum signifiers so it is difficult H2O
  5. Continue to reiterate measure 4 until a lasting bed signifiers.
  6. Measure 50cm of the H2O sample into a 250cm beaker, and furuncle for 10 proceedingss, a white bed may organize at the border of the beaker.
  7. Let the H2O sample to chill so pour back into a 100cm measurement cylinder, add distilled H2O to this to do up 100cm
  8. Transportation this back to a conelike flask and repetition stairss 4 and 5
  9. Record the consequences of sum of soap solution added and if the H2O sample is soft or difficult H2O.
  • Make these stairss for all 4 H2O samples. ( tap H2O, Maidstone, Rochester, East Farleigh

Observations:

In this experiment I was proving for hardness of H2O, I tested tap H2O from the school. A thin bed of trash formed after 9cm of soap solution was added ; at this point I could state the H2O was soft. I so boiled the H2O sample ( tap H2O ) for 10 proceedingss and added distilled H2O boulder clay 100cm. I so added soap solution once more until a bed formed. The bed of trash formed one time once more after 9cm was added. This concluded that tap H2O is somewhat soft.

Observations:

In this experiment I tested hardness of H2O utilizing a H2O sample from Maidstone. A really thick bed of trash formed merely after 8cm of soap solution. After this I boiled the H2O sample and added distilled H2O boulder clay 100cm. I so added soap solution once more when a farther bed formed. It took 10cm to organize a thick bed one time once more, because a thick bed of trash formed and it proved the H2O is really soft here every bit good.

Observations:

In this experiment I tested hardness of H2O utilizing a H2O sample from Rochester. A really thick bed of trash formed merely after 3cm of soap solution. After this I boiled the H2O sample and added distilled H2O boulder clay 100cm. I so added soap solution once more when a farther bed formed. It took 6cm to organize a thick bed one time once more, because a thick bed of trash formed and it proved the H2O is really soft here every bit good.

Observations:

In this experiment I tested hardness of H2O utilizing a H2O sample from East Farleigh. A really thick bed of trash formed merely after 6cm of soap solution. After this I boiled the H2O sample and added distilled H2O boulder clay 100cm. I so added soap solution once more when a farther bed formed. It took 10cm to organize a thick bed one time once more, because a thick bed of trash formed and it proved the H2O is really soft here every bit good.

Acid-base titrations trial

Equipment: Acid-base titrations consequences

  • 50cm burette
  • 25cm pipette and safety filler
  • 250cm volumetric flask
  • 250 conelike flask
  • Funnels
  • Standard alkaline solution
  • Ph index

Procedure: Acid-base titrations consequences

  1. Prepare solution and add to 250cm volumetric flask and do up to tag with distilled H2O
  2. Pipette 25cm into a 250cm conelike flask, add three to five beads of suited index
  3. Titrate against suited standard solution in a burette, if the sample is acidic, utilize a standard alkaline solution, if sample is a base usage a acid
  4. The terminal point is when the index changes coloring materials, the first titration is normally a unsmooth titrate which means that it may be a little more than needed for an accurate titration
  5. Take an norm.

Observations:

In this trial I was seeking to happen how much acid it took to thin a standard solution. In my trial I easy added acerb solution to the alkalic base. My consequences showed that an mean if 16.2ml had to be added to thin the solution. The original coloring material of the solution with index in was a pure purple after it was diluted it was an instant coloring material alteration to a clear liquid

Paper Chromatography Test

Equipment list: Paper Chromatography Test

  • 250ml beaker x3
  • Chromatography paper
  • Capillary tubings
  • Mixture in solution
  • Solvent armored combat vehicle and palpebra
  • “ Eluting dissolver ”
  • Alcohol and H2O
  • Paper cartridge holders
  • Pencil
  • Ruler

Procedure: Paper Chromatography Test

  1. Fill three beakers with equal sums of diluted intoxicant ( to about 1cm )
  2. Take chromatography paper and grade on top and bottom with horizontal line with pencil and swayer at 1.5cm
  3. Using capillary tubings take up ruddy dice and point on first paper on the bottom line
  4. Roll chromatography paper puting paper cartridge holder at both sides, label what colour ink you used
  5. Topographic point bottom down in beaker figure one with eluting dissolver
  6. Repeat stairss 3,4,5 with coloring material dies green and bluish
  7. Wait till the eluting dissolver reaches the top pencil line
  8. Remove chromatography paper from beakers.

Observation:

In this trial I observed that after two hours all the colorss reached the top line, the pink coloring material was the coloring material that moved the least while blue was the fastest. After the experiment I observed that all the colorss were made of three chief colorss: ruddy, bluish and xanthous. In my consequences you could state the there was a clear coloring material separation.

Concentration of Food Dyes by Colorimetry

Equipment: Concentration of nutrient dyes by Colorimetry

  • Pipet
  • Colorimeter
  • Pair of matched cuvettes
  • Standard nutrient dye
  • Sample nutrient dye

Procedure: Concentration of nutrient dyes by Colorimetry

  1. Use the pipette to fix an standard solution of nutrient dye
  2. Set up tintometer utilizing appropriate filter
  3. Fill cuvette to the grade with distilled H2O and topographic point in tintometer and take reading to do reading clear
  4. Add one bead of nutrient dye to another cuvette filled with distilled H2O
  5. Wipe cuvette clean and topographic point in tintometer and take reading
  6. Repeat measure 5 for the other 2 color dyes
  7. Keep adding beads till 10 beads and take reading of concentration for each
  8. Record in tabular array.

Evaluation

In my experiment I am seeking to happen the hardness of river H2O from the Medway, and in making so carry on a figure of trials which see if the river H2O can be diluted to do it better, overall find wither the hardness is lasting or impermanent.

In carry oning different experiments I can see if a lasting hardness bed was present or if it can be removed with boiling, I besides ran trials to see if thining the H2O sample affected the hardness.

In all of my experiments I kept everything the same except altering the one thing which I was proving for which was chiefly the H2O sample from different parts of the river, this was done so my trials were just and dependable. All the trials that I did were undertaken by utilizing the right equipment for each trial and the needed safety equipment ; this enabled me to acquire the best consequence possible for my set of consequences.

First I started off with the hardness of H2O trial ; here I tested H2O samples from three different parts of the river. In this experiment I tested how much soap solution was required to organize a lasting bed, and so repetition and see wither boiling the same sample made the layer disappear or non. My consequences showed me that boiling the H2O sample did cut down the sum of trash in the H2O and there for proved that the H2O could be made even softer and better than it already is. I came across no jobs in this experiment.

Following I done an experiment which was called acid-based titrations, this was to see how much acid would be needed to thin a standard solution. This was more of a trial experiment so at a ulterior phase turn out if H2O from the Medway was to alkaline so it could be possible to thin. The experiment was reasonably simple without any jobs and I was able to happen out quiet easy how much acid would be needed to thin a standard solution at a really exact sum.

I so went on to making a chromatography trial which was to supply me with information in how to divide constituents of a mixture and so run farther trials on them. In this trial I merely tested three different nutrient dyes, ruddy, green and bluish. I managed to acquire consequences in how the coloring material separation occurred and what it left behind. I came across no jobs in this trial either.

Following I tested concentration of nutrient dyes by colorimetric analysis. In this experiment I used a tintometer which tested the concentration of the dyes. I came across a job in this experiment as the tintometer was hard to understand at first and hence this experiment had to be under take a twosome of times to acquire the right consequences. Besides as the detector in the machine is sensitive in reading the information. Overall I was able to acquire the different concentrations of the nutrient dyes and in making so was easy able to find the different concentrations of the unknown measures.

To better my consequences I could hold done more trials to acquire a wider scope of informations and there for brand more elaborate comparings between my consequences.

Runaway Exotherms

Information:

Q = Heat given by the reaction

Q = m x cx ( T^2 – T^1 )

M = Total mass ( kilogram )

C = Specific heat capacity of solution

T^1 = Starting temperature of solution

T^2 = Final temperature after reaction

Hazard Appraisal: Molar heat content alteration of burning

Equipment: Molar heat content alteration of burning

  • Food-fuel tintometer
  • Spirit burner
  • Pump to supply adjustable suction
  • 500cm cylinder
  • Accrete thermometer
  • 6v battery
  • Eye protection

Procedure: Molar heat content alteration of burning

  1. First construct a hazard appraisal
  2. Set up calorimeter and clamp it in place, record the calorimeter ‘s H2O equivalent.
  3. Measure H2O into the calorimeter until the Cu spiral is to the full submerged, but there is still room to stir the H2O without it overruning. Record the volume of H2O used.
  4. Connect the top of the Cu spiral to a filter pump, and pull a soft watercourse of air through the calorimeter
  5. Topographic point the spirit burner on the calorimeter base in a place where it can be brought into contact with the ignite spiral. Lower the glass calorimeter onto its base
  6. Connect the ignition spiral to a 6v supply. Turn it on to light the spirit burner and turn it off once more instantly. Adjust the filter pump to give the slowest possible watercourse of air that will maintain the slowest possible watercourse of air that will maintain so burner alight.
  7. Once you have adjusted the flow to obtain a steady fire, raise the glass, and snuff out the burner. Remove the burner, weigh it to 0.001g and replace it.

Observations:

In this experiment I was proving to see what the temperature alteration was of H2O when I burned three different fuels, methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol and hexane, with oxygen suction happening. My consequences for methyl alcohol show that there was a temperature addition of 11 & A ; deg ; C over a 10 minute clip graduated table. I came across a great job with ethyl alcohol. The job with ethyl alcohol was a little fire was produced but about immediately the fire was distinguished when the beaker was placed on top, I was unable to obtain consequences for this fuel type.

Observations:

In this experiment I was proving to see what the temperature alteration was of H2O when I burned three different fuels, methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol and hexane, with oxygen suction happening. My consequences for Methanol show that there was a temperature addition of 10 & A ; deg ; C over a 10 minute clip graduated table.

Observations:

In this experiment I was proving to see what the temperature alteration was of H2O when I burned three different fuels, methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol and hexane, with oxygen suction happening. My consequences for Hexane show that there was a temperature addition of 5 & A ; deg ; C over a 10 minute clip graduated table.

Hazard Appraisal: Measuring heat content alterations of burning

Equipment: Measuring heat content alterations of burning

  • Spirit burner
  • Tin can
  • 250cm mensurating cylinder
  • -10 & A ; deg ; C to 110 & A ; deg ; C thermometer
  • Three bench mats to utilize as draft shields
  • Eye protection

Procedure: Measuring heat content alterations of burning

  1. Weigh the Sn can. Add about 200cm of H2O, and weigh once more
  2. Weigh the spirit burner
  3. Clamp the can a short distance above the burner, take the initial temperature of the H2O
  4. Arrange draught shields on two sides, light the fuel, put the 3rd draught shield in topographic point
  5. Stir the H2O exhaustively, but carefully, with the thermometer until the temperature has risen by about 30 & A ; deg ; C
  6. Put a cap on the burner to snuff out the fire, splash and record the highest temperature reached
  7. Reweigh the burner

Observations:

In this experiment I was seeing how temperature alteration was affected by utilizing a Sn can in a burning trial. My consequences show that a Sn can was a perfect music director in deriving such a high heat, but unhappily was non so good to maintain radiating this heat after there was no fuel beginning ( spirit burner ) . My consequences could hold been different if a wholly new type of Sn can material was used or even there was a stronger burner.

Observations:

In this experiment I was seeing how temperature alteration was affected by utilizing a Sn can in a burning trial. My consequences show that a Sn can was a perfect music director in deriving such a high heat, but unhappily was non so good to maintain radiating this heat after there was no fuel beginning ( spirit burner ) . My consequences could hold been different if a wholly new type of Sn can material was used or even there was a stronger burner.

Hazard Appraisal: Measuring heat content alterations for reactions in solution

Equipment: Measuring heat content alterations for reactions in solution

  • Polystyrene cup with lid
  • -10 & A ; deg ; C to 110 & A ; deg ; C thermometer
  • 25cm mensurating cylinder
  • 2mol dm hydrochloric acid
  • 2mol dm Na hydrated oxide
  • 2mol dm Na carbonate
  • 2mol dm Ca chloride

Procedure: Measuring heat content alterations for reactions in solution

  1. Measure 25cm of 2mol diabetes mellituss hydrochloric acid in a measurement cylinder. Take its get downing temperature, pour the acid into the Polystyrene cup
  2. Rinse the cylinder and thermometer. Measure 25cm Na hydrated oxide. Take its temperature, if the temperatures of the solutions differ so take an norm
  3. Carefully pour the Na hydroxide solution into the acid, insert thermometer through palpebra, gently swirl to blend, enter the highest temperature reached
  4. Rinse all setup, repetition stairss 1 to 3 with 2mol diabetes mellituss sodium carbonate and Ca chloride entering the lowest temperature reached.

Observations:

In this experiment I was proving how mensural measures of chemicals produced a rise in temperature after they reacted with another chemical. I used polystyrene cups as this had small consequence on the temperature. In my consequences for this trial I found that Na hydrated oxide and hydrochloric acid produced a reaction doing a temperature rise of 11.5 & A ; deg ; C.

Observations:

In this experiment I was proving how mensural measures of chemicals produced a diminution in temperature after they reacted with another chemical. I used polystyrene cups as this had small consequence on the temperature. In my consequences for this trial I found that there was no diminution or rise in temperature. I think this was due to the chemical Na carbonate being saturated, as this may hold affected the reaction and there for made a difference to the temperature.

Observation:

In this experiment I was proving how mensural measures of chemicals produced a rise in temperature after they reacted with another chemical. I used polystyrene cups as this had small consequence on the temperature. In my consequences for this trial I found that Na hydrated oxide and hydrochloric acid produced a reaction doing a temperature rise of 12.25 & A ; deg ; C.

Observations:

In this experiment I was proving how mensural measures of chemicals produced a diminution in temperature after they reacted with another chemical. I used polystyrene cups as this had small consequence on the temperature. In my consequences for this trial I found that there was merely a diminution of 0.5 & A ; deg ; C. I think this was due to the chemical Na carbonate being saturated, as this may hold affected the reaction and there for made a difference to the temperature.

Hazard appraisal: Datas logging to mensurate temperature alterations

Equipment: Datas logging to mensurate temperature alterations

  • Data logging equipment
  • 100cm beaker
  • 25cm mensurating cylinder
  • 50cm burette
  • 1mol dm sulfuric acid
  • Cleaned Mg thread
  • 1 mol diabetes mellitus Na hydrated oxide
  • Magnetic scaremonger

Procedure: Datas logging to mensurate temperature alterations

  1. Set up informations lumberman to compensate puting
  2. Measure 20cm of 1 mol dm sulfuric acid into a 100cm beaker, topographic point on magnetic scaremonger and adjust to stir gently
  3. Insert temperature detector and get down logging
  4. Add 10cm length of cleaned Mg thread, slackly coiled, continue logging until the reaction is complete
  5. Rinse beaker and detector ready for 2nd reaction, add 1 mol diabetes mellitus Na hydrated oxide, topographic point on scaremonger as before
  6. Fill burette with 1 mol dm sulfuric acid, and nothing it, place it over the beaker
  7. Get down stirring and logging, carefully open the burette pat somewhat to give about 1 bead per second, continue logging while dropping in acid at this steady rate, until you have added 15cm of acid.

Observations:

In this experiment I was looking at how to log temperature reading at a really accurate grade. In my trial I recorded informations which showed a really speedy temperature addition which I would non be able to enter with a thermometer. In my experiment I tested the temperature alteration of sulfuric acid so I reacted it with Mg.

Observations:

In this experiment I was looking at how to log temperature reading at a really accurate grade. In my trial I recorded informations which showed a really speedy temperature addition which I would non be able to enter with a thermometer. In my experiment I tested the temperature alteration of sulfuric acid so I reacted it with Mg. My consequences show a really speedy addition in temperature.

Observations:

In this experiment I was looking at high to log temperature reading at a really accurate grade. In my trial I recorded informations which showed a really speedy temperature addition which I would non be able to enter with a thermometer. In my experiment I tested the temperature alteration of Na hydrated oxide so I reacted it with sulfuric acid.

Evaluation

In my experiment I am seeking to happen heat content ( heat energy content ) of different chemical substances. So when a chemical alterations in a reaction so does its heat content.

In all my experiments I kept everything the same except the one factor which I was proving. In this instance the factor that was being changed was the different chemicals I used. This kept my consequences just and dependable as possible. I besides did trials more than one time which made my overall consequences more consistent and really similar to the old.

First I started off with proving molar heat content alteration for burning ; in this trial I tested methyl alcohol and hexane. In this experiment I was proving to see how much heat content was generated with a limited sum of fuel. My consequences clearly show that methyl alcohol generated much more enthalpy than hexane as there was a much higher temperature generated. The one job I came across was that when I placed the beaker on each of the fuels the fire was about about distinguished, this caused a job as this had to be really delicate. Make to this job I could non garner consequences for ethyl alcohol as the fuel type was really weak and did non make a big adequate fire. Other than this I gathered two sets of consequences for this experiment comparing two different fuel types.

Second I tested mensurating heat content of burning, in this experiment I tested how heat content was changed utilizing a Sn can to bring forth and magnify the burning procedure. I used a powerful spirit burner to bring forth the heat to which boiled the H2O in the Sn can. I so turned the burner off and measured how much the heat rose without a fire. My consequences show that the heat generated was really good conducted by the Sn can but every bit shortly as there was no heat beginning so the temperature did non raise which ended the burning procedure. I did this experiment two times which provided me with more accurate and similar consequences which defined the overall consequence.

Third I measured enthalpy alteration for reactions in solution, in this experiment I tested how heat content was affected when one chemical was combined with another, doing a response in heat content. I started off with uniting hydrochloric acid with Na hydrated oxide, my consequences show that this caused a really affectional reaction. Overall there was a positive heat content alteration, I did this trial 2 times to acquire similar and there for more dependable consequences. I so combined sodium carbonate with Ca chloride, my consequences for this experiment show that there was no reaction doing the temperature to take down, in one of my consequences the temperature was lowered by 0.5 & A ; deg ; C, but I think this was merely a general alteration in temperature affected by room temperature as the alteration was so minor. I did this trial 2 times to acquire accurate consequences.

Following I used informations logging to mensurate temperature alteration, this was to happen the difference in heat content but to a much higher grade of truth. In this experiment I tested how Mg reacted with sulfuric acid, to be able to enter the enthalpy alteration accurately. My consequences show that Mg reacted really smartly with sulfuric acid doing such a rapid temperature alteration increasing 25 & A ; deg ; C in under two proceedingss ‘ did this trial two times to acquire accurate consequences. I besides reacted sodium hydrated oxide with sulfuric acid to do a comparing between the reaction types. This reaction on the other manus was really weak merely increasing 6 & A ; deg ; C over the clip graduated table. The lone job I came across with this experiment was utilizing the information lumberman.

To better my consequences I could make more trials which would give me a much wider and unfastened scope of consequences, besides an betterment in my cognition utilizing a information lumberman would hold saved clip.

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