Social work involves working in profoundly emotional events in peoples lives, its pattern is demanding and disputing and possibly one of its most alone qualities is the balance it holds between understanding and working with the internal and external worlds of service users ( Bower, 2005 ) .
In 1935, Charlotte Towle, a pioneering societal worker, profoundly influenced the profession recognizing that societal workers needed to procure cognition of human behavior to understand service users. She distinguished between cognizing people and cognizing about people, proposing the nucleus of societal work to be the interaction between the service user and the societal worker ( Towle, 1969 ) . More late, literature has expressed a continued relationship based attack to societal work, which emphasises the importance of the societal work relationship and the quality of the societal work experience provided ( Trevethick, 2003, Howe, 1998 ) . Understanding how to outdo facilitate relationships and work with service users requires acquisition of cognition from a scope of subjects, theories and accomplishments ( Strean, 1978, Hollis, 1964 ) .
Trevithick ( 2000 ) discusses that the penetration derived from depth psychology, the psychodynamic attack and its theories on the unconscious can help the societal worker in offering a model for understanding complex human relationships. The attack has had a major impact on societal work ‘s development as theories on the unconscious have impacted on ways of working with and understanding service users ( Pinkus et al, 1977 )
The psychodynamic attack derives from Sigmund Freud ‘s depth psychology, a method of enquiry, theory of head and organic structure of research. Contrary to the prevailing idea at the clip, where the premise of psychological science was that human behavior was rational and the key to understanding behavior was to concentrate upon consciousness, Freud ( 1936 ) believed that behavior was irrational and our personality, motivations and behaviors were driven by the unconscious. Central to Freud ‘s theories was the thought that certain experiences during childhood that are excessively painful to retrieve and are unconsciously repressed. Harmonizing to Freud, these repressed ideas give rise to provinces of anxiousness or depressions which can be expressed in physical symptoms ( Freud, 1986 ) .
In the 1920 ‘s societal work pattern shifted dramatically to working in infirmaries along side medical pattern, widening their exposure to psychiatric thought ( Goldstein, 1995 ) . In a publication in 1940, Annette Garret became one of the first societal work writers to notice on the impact of Freud ‘s work on societal work pattern, recommending for psychoanalytical thoughts to be considered used by societal workers working with people in hurt ( Brandell, 2004 ) .
Freud and his co-workers came to gain that symptoms, such as depression, anxiousness and other psychological upsets could be looks of unconscious conflicting urges and unsolved issues ( BPS, 2007 ) . They explored the thought of transference, the projection of unconscious feelings of unsolved issues from the service user ‘s past experiences onto the worker. The service user experiences the present working relationship through this point of view and sees the worker as if he or she is a individual from their yesteryear. Freud felt that the unconscious was able to remember feelings from the yesteryear and project them onto the state of affairs in the present. This procedure, Freud named called transference and when feelings were projected from worker to service user, it was called counter-transference. ( Freud, 1986 ) . Freud noted that transference and counter-transference were experienced in the curative relationship ( Freud, 1986 ) . This impression has deductions for societal work in that it allows the societal worker to be cognizant of his/her unsolved issues that may impact on the working relationship with a service user and besides allows the societal worker to be aware of how the service user is sing the working relationship. Payne ( 1991 ) discusses how a societal worker ‘s unconscious feelings can be awakened while working with a service user who possibly reminds him/her of an experience or clip in his/her ain life.
Freud ‘s theories associating to the unconscious show that rational human pick may be overridden by our unconscious interior struggles ( Brandell, 2004 ) and can help us in understanding human behavior. The theories encourage societal workers to hold an unfastened head when working with hard-pressed service users, enabling them to individualize the individual in their environment, proposing that each service user is alone in personal experience, strength and failing ( Strean, 1993 ) . Transference and counter transference recognise that both service users and societal workers are human existences and that to work efficaciously together involves admiting the emotions associated with all relationships ( Trevithick, 2000 ) .
Schon ( 1983 ) , Fook and Gardner ( 2007 ) , Thompson and Thompson, ( 2008 ) advocate the importance of being a brooding practician. I feel that the psychodynamic position can help societal workers in geting the ego cognition it takes to go brooding. Trevithick ( 2003 ) describes this ego cognition as being what we learn about ourselves over clip, including pattern wisdom, our ability to be honest with ourselves about strengths and qualities while at the same clip accepting our restrictions.
However, Freud ‘s theories on the unconcious have their restrictions in regard of societal work pattern. As Freud used non scientific methods in his research, it is hard to turn out or confute his thoughts. Freud did non hold any concrete informations, but undertook many single appraisals, chiefly with older upper category adult females and for this ground, his work is considered male chauvinist ( Mitchel, 1974 ) and besides euro and ethnocentric ( Robinson 1995, Trevithick, 2000 ) as the surveies concentrate on white populations. Fernando ( 1991 ) suggest that Freud saw other civilizations as crude in comparing to western white society connoting a racialist angle and Strean ( 1979 ) goes farther to province that Freud had limited cultural premises and he saw divergences from this cultural norm as unnatural and worthy of his psychoanalytic intervention. However, in malice of this, Cameron ( 2006 ) points out that the psychodynamic attack has been taken up in many cultural contexts, most notably in Latin America, India and Japan.
In visible radiation of unfavorable judgment, nevertheless, the psychoanalytical constructs put frontward by Freud and developed by later analysts have enriched our cognition of mental operation and human relationships and informs the relationship facet of societal work. It non merely assists in informing the societal work/service user relationship but besides the relationships that service users have had in the past, experience in the present and will hold in the hereafter. Social work is about working with people and the psychodynamic position brings an excess accomplishment of consciousness into drama.
Freud began to understand, through this phase development theory for kids, that the kid ‘s relationship to parents is the paradigm for all future relationships in the kid ‘s life ( Freud, 1986 ) . These can affect emotions such as competition, green-eyed monster, guilt, love and hatred. Freud felt that our gender began when we were babes and developed through assorted arrested developments. If each phase was non completed successfully, we would develop an anxiousness and subsequently in life, a defense mechanism mechanism to avoid that anxiousness ( Freud 1986 ) . Freud developed the first phase development theory which acknowledges the issue of fond regard between female parent and kid, a theory which subsequently would be developed by other psychoanalysts and subjects.
In societal work pattern, the traumatic effects of drawn-out separation between female parent and baby are widely recognised today and this has led to extremist alterations in the direction of kids in infirmary ( BPS, 2007 ) . Later followings of Freud, such as, Erik Eriksen and John Bowlby, came to gain, through their work with kids, that experiences of early childhood, though lost to the witting head in maturity, remain in the unconscious and continually affect and shape relationships and behavior in mundane life ( BPS, 2007 ) .
Bowlby ( 1951 ) developed Freud ‘s theory, holding with Freud ‘s accent on the importance of the kid ‘s fond regard to the female parent as a footing for later emotional relationships. His fond regard theory describes how our closest relationships begin in early childhood and set the phase for subsequent development. Bowlby theorised that when the relationships are unafraid, they promote self trust, confident geographic expedition of the environment and resilience in covering with troubles in life yet a deficiency of unafraid fond regard can take to emotional jobs, trouble associating to others and a exposure to psychological hurt ( Sable, 2004, Bowlby 1951 ) .
Bowlby believed that a female parent inherits a familial impulse to react to her babe and there is a critical period after the babe is born during which the female parent and babe form an fond regard. One of the most controversial facets of Bowlby ‘s theory was the claim that babes have an innate inclination to go attached to their primary health professional, normally the female parent, and that this fond regard is different from other fond regards and moreover, any break of this bond in this period can hold serious long term effects for the kid ‘s development. ( Sable, 2004 ) . This has been criticised by other theoreticians who province that the fond regard does non hold to lie with the female parent, it can be with any attention giver ( Schaffer & A ; Emerson, 1964 ) .
Mary Ainsworth, a psychologist and pupil of Bowlby, devised a research lab experiment called the ‘Strange Situation ‘ ( Ainsworth, 1978 ) which showed that Bowlby ‘s germinating thoughts could be tested and given a research base. A babe was observed in a set of seven state of affairss, with the female parent, with the female parent and a alien, with merely a alien and on its ain. The babe ‘s reactions were observed ( Ainsworth and Bell, 1970 ) . Ainsworth found that psychological wellness is related to the positive quality of the fond regard experienced, both in the present and in the yesteryear and the personal significance attributed to them. Psychological hurt is perceived as a disfunction of the attachment systems and symptoms of anxiousness, depression or choler reflect the internalization of inauspicious fondness experienced ensuing in dysfunctional behavior ( Sable, 2004 ) . The behavior of the parents towards the kid, whether they are sympathetic and respond to the kid ‘s demands, physically and emotionally, is paramount and harmonizing to Ainsworth, the more parents accept the kid, the more firmly attached the kid is ( Ainsworth and Bowlby, 1965 ) .
In using Bowlby ‘s theory to societal work, we can see how societal workers can build an apprehension of service users ‘ early lives and steer pull offing the relationship in the hereafter ( Sable, 2000 ) . Bowlby ( 1982 ) proposed that kids internalise the relationship experiences with their primary attention givers during their first twelvemonth and develop internal working theoretical accounts, which help to foretell and understand their environment. The bond that kids create with a primary attention giver shapes how they respond to others in ulterior life ( Bowlby, 1982, Ainsworth ( 1967 ) and Ainsworth et Al, 1978 ) . To associate this to societal work pattern, when working with kids, it is common to see a kid ‘s challenging and riotous behavior being understood as their effort to prove whether new grownups in their life are dependable or more consistent than old 1s ( Payne, 2005 ) . The psychodynamic attack offers an account for relationship behavior in the service users we work with, offering an account for their behavior and doing us cognizant that there might be unsolved issues for kids who have had negative experiences with fond regard in the yesteryear. It encourages us to maintain working with debatable kids, seeing that what is on the surface may non needfully be the full narrative.
Bowlby ‘s fond regard theory and the construct of resiliency has besides been used in societal work with kids to accomplish positive results for looked after kids where attention provided to looked after kids purposes to supply a secure place base, improved ego regard and assurance ( Gilligan, 1998 ) . The policy papers, Caring for kids off from place ( DoH, 1998 ) , explains that kids in the attention system will frequently hold had a long history of household jobs and an emotionally disruptive life, go forthing their personal development damaged and their capacity for basic trust in people badly compromised. This papers highlights that societal workers will hold to work with service users who display forms of insecure fond regards. The ability for carers to supply secure fond regard and emotional heat is portion of policy counsel in the Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their households ( DoH, 2000 ) . Bowlby ‘s fond regard theory allows societal workers to do the nexus between emotional development, behavior and the quality of relationships with their carers ( Trevithick, 2000 ) . Howe ( 2000 ) states that attachment theory can steer and inform societal work with their intercessions with kids. It can move as a model of theory and forms of thought.
Bowlby ‘s fond regard theory can besides assist societal worker ‘s make sense of the manner in which service users engage with services. The cardinal thoughts of fond regard theory used today are that the quality of close relationships has a bearing on personality, emotional and societal development non merely in childhood but across the lifetime ( Howe, 2001 ) . Most societal workers have worked with service users who say that they would wish support but can non do usage of the services on offer. This trouble can bespeak experience of hurt in early childhood and can be understood in footings of their history of attachment bonds ( Howe, 1999 ) . Some service users seek to exercise control in the relationship with a societal worker, possibly declining support or doing unrealistic demands. Social workers could see this as the service user being hard or instead, with consideration to attachment theory, this could be understood in footings of the service user ‘s old experience of rejection from their carers which has left them cautious of accepting aid ( Trevithick, 2000 ) .
In critical analysis of fond regard theory, Schofield and Beek ( 2006 ) explain that although attachment theory can offer aid, service users lives need to be considered unambiguously, pulling on their wider environment, instruction, experiences of racism and economic background. For illustration, fond regard to carers is cardinal to working with looked after kids but must be understood within a scope of other factors ( Schofield and Beek, 2006 ) . It can besides be argued that attachment theory does non see issues of subjugation that consequence from differences of race, gender, civilization, gender and social-economic factors ( Milner and O’Byrne, 2002 ) .A In a society where due to globalization, colonization, in-migration and refuge searchers, households are holding to go great distances to procure fond regards, Bowlby ‘s Eurocentric theories do non travel far in explicating civilizations or societal work from a black position ( Robinson, 1995 ) . Human nature is really complex and no one theory can account for the infinite scope of difference amongst persons. For illustration, difference in larning abilities and other jobs in development such as autism can be mistaken for fond regard upsets if examined in isolation ( Rugters et Al, 2004 )
In decision, it is apparent that there are failings to a psychodynamic attack in societal work. Theories of the unconscious can partially explicate human behavior but it fails to take into history environmental, societal, economic factors and issues of civilization and race. It is besides deterministic in its attack and does non go forth much room for bureau and alteration. This high spots once more that theories on the unconscious should non be used in isolation.
However, in societal work pattern, we do non utilize merely one organic structure of cognition. Social work cognition is derived from different attacks but what they all have in common is that they do non arise from or are specific to societal work itself, recognizing that societal work theory is a political and societal procedure ( Payne, 1997 ) . Briggs ( 2005 ) states that the overall the part of psychodynamic research is to convey in another point of position which enhances the brooding psychosocial infinite in which societal work takes topographic points.
As a nucleus constituent of societal work, the ability to react to people ‘s emotional demands, to their impulse for emotional development and to the troubles they experience in forming or keeping relationships, the psychodynamic position can help in giving us another point of position in working with complex human relationships.
In footings of recent policy, high profile probes since 2000 have highlighted the importance of effectual relationship edifice in societal work ( Laming, 2003 and Laming, 2009 ) These instances have caused countrywide concern beyond the professions and services involved, doing a craze of media remark and public argument, seting the societal work profession under the microscope. Social workers need good observation and analytical accomplishments in order to be able to understand the nature of the relationship between a parent and kid, to understand marks of disobedience, to work aboard a household, and to come to safe and grounds based opinions about the best class of action ( Laming, 2009 ) .
As societal work continues to be really much under society ‘s microscope, it is indispensable that it encompasses a organic structure of cognition from a broad assortment of subjects, ever staying unfastened to new theory and cognition while sing positions from other professions.
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