Moses in christianity

Egypt the place of birth of Musa a courier of God was a land of “ corruption and corruptness ” ( Yahya ) earlier before the birth of Musa. Racial favoritism was the chief issue of that clip as the Israelites were enslaved and were enduring earnestly. Musa was born into an Israelite/ Israeli household when the Pharaoh of that clip gave orders that all boies born into the Israelites household be killed and all females were taken to slavery. The Pharaoh ‘s action was based on what his prestidigitators foresaw and predicted that he was in danger because an Israeli yet to be born is traveling to be responsible for his ruin.

“ 4.Verily, Fir’aun ( Pharaoh ) exalted himself in the land and made its people religious orders, weakening ( suppressing ) a group ( i.e. Children of Israel ) among them, killing their boies, and allowing their females live. Verily, he was of theMufsidun ( i.e. those who commit great wickednesss and offenses, oppressors, autocrats, etc. ) . 5.And We wished to make a favor to those who were weak ( and oppressed ) in the land, and to do them swayers and to do them the heirs, 6.And to set up them in the land, and We let Fir’aun ( Pharaoh ) and Haman and their hosts receive from them that which they feared. ” ( Qur’an 28: 4-6 )

After his birth his female parent was concerned and scared of the new order imposed. She hid him in her house from the Pharaoh ‘s guards for approximately 3 months. She was subsequently on instructed by God to protect her kid and put him in a basket and float him down the river Nile when she got frightened.

“ Suckle him and so when you fear for him cast him into the sea. Do non fear or sorrow ; We will return him to you and do him one of the Messengers. ” ( Qur’an 28: 7 )

Amazingly, by the will of God the basket floated into the Pharaoh ‘s castle and was adopted into the Pharaoh ‘s family and raised as a prince.

“ 8.Then the family of Fir’aun ( Pharaoh ) picked him up, that he might go for them an enemy and a ( cause of ) heartache. Verily! Fir’aun ( Pharaoh ) , Haman and their hosts were evildoers. 9.And the married woman of Fir’aun ( Pharaoh ) said: “ A comfort of the oculus for me and for you. Kill him non, possibly he may be of benefit to us, or we may follow him as a boy. ” And they perceive non ( the consequence of that ) . ” ( Qur’an 28: 8-9 )

He was nursed by his birth female parent because he refused to be breast fed by any other adult female that was summoned for.

“ 12.And We had already forbidden ( other ) foster suckling female parents for him, until she ( his sister came up and ) said: “ Shall I direct you to a family who will rise up him for you, and unfeignedly they will look after him in a good mode? ” 13.So did We reconstruct him to his female parent, that she might be delighted, and that she might non sorrow, and that she might cognize that the Promise of Allah is true. But most of them know non. ” ( Qur’an 28: 12-13 )

As a adult adult male, he detested the fact that the Egyptians were enduring the Israelites. There was an incidence were he came across an Egyptian crushing an Israelite. The degree of unfairness suffered by the Hebrewss angered him to the point of killing the Egyptian that was penalizing the Israelite. Musa left Egypt and resided in Midian, a topographic point in the desert because he was sentenced to decease by the Pharaoh due of his action against the Egyptian. He lived in the desert for about 40 old ages until God called him and ordered him to salvage his people from the act of unfairness imposed on them by the Egyptians.

This is the point where the narrative of Musa in Islam and that of Moses in Christianity meets a fluctuation of positions. Both faiths have different versions of how he approached and mentioned the orders given to him by God to the Pharaoh and the Israelites.

Suratul shu’ara in the sanctum Qur’an says:

“ 10.And ( retrieve ) when your Lord called M & A ; ucirc ; SA ( Moses ) ( stating ) : “ Travel to the people who areZ & amp ; acirc ; lim & A ; ucirc ; n ( polytheists and wrong-doing ) , 11.The people of Fir’aun ( Pharaoh ) . Will they non fear All & A ; acirc ; H and go righteous? ” 12.He said: “ My Godhead! Verily, I fear that they will believe me, 13. “ And my chest straitens, and my lingua expresses non good. So send for H & A ; acirc ; R & A ; ucirc ; n ( Aaron ) ( to come along with me ) . 14. “ And they have a charge of offense against me, and I fear they will kill me. ” 15.All & A ; acirc ; H said: “ Nay! Go you both with Our Signs. Verily! We shall be with you, listening. 16. “ And when you both come to Fir’aun ( Pharaoh ) , say: ‘We are the Messengers of the Lord of the’Alam & A ; icirc ; n ( world, jinns and all that exists ) , 17. “ So let the Children of Israel to travel with us. ‘ “ 18. [ Fir’aun ( Pharaoh ) ] said [ to M & A ; ucirc ; SA ( Moses ) ] : “ Did we non convey you up among us as a kid? And you did brood many old ages of your life with us. 19. “ And you did your title, which you did ( i.e. the offense of killing a adult male ) . And you are one of the ingrates. ” 20. “ M & A ; ucirc ; SA ( Moses ) said: “ I did it so, when I was an nescient ( as respects my Lord and His Message ) . 21. “ So I fled from you when I feared you. But my Lord has granted meHukman ( i.e. spiritual cognition, right opinion of the personal businesss and Prophethood ) , and appointed me as one of the Messengers. 22. “ And this is the past favor with which you reproach me, that you have enslaved the Children of Israel. ” 23.Fir’aun ( Pharaoh ) said: “ And what is the Lord of the’Alam & A ; icirc ; n ( world, jinns and all that exists ) ? ” 24.M & A ; ucirc ; SA ( Moses ) said: “ Lord of the celestial spheres and the Earth, and all that is between them, if you seek to be convinced with certainty. ” 25.Fir’aun ( Pharaoh ) said to those around: “ Do you non hear ( what he says ) ? ” 26.M & A ; ucirc ; SA ( Moses ) said: “ Your Lord and the Lord of your ancient male parents! ” 27.Fir’aun ( Pharaoh ) said: “ Verily, your Messenger who has been sent to you is a lunatic! ” 28.M & A ; ucirc ; SA ( Moses ) said: “ Lord of the E and the West, and all that is between them, if you did but understand! ” ( Qur’an 26: 10-28 )

In the bible Moses was scared to travel back to Egypt because he feared the Israelites would non believe him and come along with him to the Promised Land. Due to his fright and contemplations the Lord revealed to him every bit mentioned in the bible. Moses got the strength to near Egypt and present the undertaking given to him by God with the verification in Exodus 4: 11 as given below:

“ Who has made adult male ‘s oral cavity? Or who makes the deaf-and-dumb person, the deaf, the visual perception, or the blind? Have non I, the Lord? Now hence, travel, and I will be with your oral cavity and learn you what you shall state. ” ( Exodus 4:11 )

Among all other couriers of Allah, prophesier Musa ( AS ) is most repeatedly used as an illustration in the sanctum Qur’an.

“ Musa ‘s name is referred to in 34 different suras ( chapters ) . We can happen extended information about the life of Musa in three of the largest suras ( al-A’raf, Ta Ha, and al-Qasas ) . All these suras and poetries offer elaborate histories of his troubles with Pharaoh, get downing in his childhood, the evil behavior of his people and his battle in pass oning the message to them. His dogged bravery under the most rigorous fortunes is presented with the purpose of being an illustration to people. ” ( Yahya )

Musa as mentioned earlier was a courier of Allah sent to the Israelites. He was ordered by Allah to state them about Him ( as the one God ) and to teach and learn them to obey him entirely as they were created and brought down to earth to idolize Allah entirely.

When Musa left the comeuppances to travel back into Egypt to assist the Israelites as ordered by Allah ( God ) he was challenged by the Pharaoh to turn out the being of his God. The Pharaoh believed he was God and he is to be worshiped.

“ 106. [ Fir’aun ( Pharaoh ) ] said: “ If you have come with a mark, show it Forth, – if you are one of those who tell the truth. ” 107.Then [ Musa ( Moses ) ] threw his stick and behold! it was a snake, manifest! ” 108.And he drew out his manus, and behold! it was white ( with glow ) for the perceivers. “ ( Qur’an 7: 106-107 )

He threatened to incarcerate Musa for taking Allah as his God. The Pharaoh gathered his most celebrated prestidigitators for an resistance of powers and miracles with Musa.

“ 29.Fir’aun ( Pharaoh ) said: “ If you choose anil & A ; acirc ; H ( God ) other than me, I will surely set you among the captives. ” 30.M & A ; ucirc ; SA ( Moses ) said: “ Even if I bring you something manifest ( and converting ) ? ” 31.Fir’aun ( Pharaoh ) said: “ Bring it forth so, if you are of the truthful! “ 32.So [ M & A ; ucirc ; SA ( Moses ) ] threw his stick, and behold, it was a snake, manifest. 33.And he drew out his manus, and behold, it was white to all perceivers! 34. [ Fir’aun ( Pharaoh ) ] said to the heads around him: “ Verily! This is so a well-versed magician. 35. “ He wants to drive you out of your land by his black magic, so what is it your advocate, and what do you command? ” 36.They said: “ Put him off and his brother ( for a piece ) , and send companies to the metropoliss ; 37. “ To convey up to you every well-versed magician. ” 38.So the magicians were assembled at a fixed clip on a twenty-four hours appointed. 39.And it was said to the people: “ Are you ( excessively ) traveling to piece? 40. “ That we may follow the magicians [ who were on Fir’aun ‘s ( Pharaoh ) faith of incredulity ] if they are the victors. ” 41.So when the magicians arrived, they said to Fir’aun ( Pharaoh ) : “ Will there certainly be a wages for us if we are the victors? ” 42.He said: “ Yes, and you shall so verily be of those brought nigh ( to myself ) . ” 43.M & A ; ucirc ; SA ( Moses ) said to them: “ Throw what you are traveling to throw! ” 44.So they threw their ropes and their sticks, and said: “ By the might of Fir’aun ( Pharaoh ) , it is we who will surely win! ” 45.Then M & A ; ucirc ; SA ( Moses ) threw his stick, and behold, it swallowed up all the falsities which they showed! 46.And the magicians fell down prostrate. 47.Saying: “ We believe in the Lord of the’Alam & A ; icirc ; n ( world, jinns and all that exists ) . 48. “ The Lord of M & A ; ucirc ; SA ( Moses ) and H & A ; acirc ; R & A ; ucirc ; n ( Aaron ) . ” 49. [ Fir’aun ( Pharaoh ) ] said: “ You have believed in him before I give you leave. Surely, he so is your head, who has taught you magic! So verily, you shall come to cognize. Verily, I will cut off your custodies and your pess on opposite sides, and I will crucify you all. ” 50.They said: “ No injury! Surely, to our Lord ( All & A ; acirc ; H ) we are to return ; 51. ” Verily! We truly hope that our Lord will forgive us our wickednesss, as we are the first of the trusters [ in M & A ; ucirc ; SA ( Moses ) and in the Monotheism which he has brought from All & A ; acirc ; h ] . ” ( Qur’an 26: 29-51 )

The Pharaoh got ferocious to the actions of his prestidigitators and claimed he has non released them or ordered them to accept Musa ‘s God. Meanwhile the prestidigitators could see clearly that what Musa did earlier was no thaumaturgy but a miracle of Musa ‘s God. They submitted themselves instantly to Allah. The Pharaoh so decided to utilize force against Musa because he was still in denial due to his intensifying ignorance.

In the Holy Bible ( Old Testament to be pr & A ; eacute ; cised ) , Moses has the most influential and singular narrative among other christ. His narrative portrays some of the many miracles and speculator being of God. He was mentioned 207 times in 27 books of the Bible.

21And the LORD said to Moses, “ When you go back to Egypt, see that you do all those admirations before Pharaoh which I have put in your manus. But I will indurate his bosom, so that he will non allow the people go.22Then you shall state to Pharaoh, ‘Thus says the LORD: “ IsraelisMy boy, My firstborn.23So I say to you, allow My boy go that he may function Me. But if you refuse to allow him travel, so I will kill your boy, your eldest. ” ‘ ” 24And it came to go through on the manner, at the campsite, that the LORD met him and sought to kill him.25Then Zipporah took a crisp rock and cut off the prepuce of her boy and castitatMoses ‘ [ a ] pess, and said, “ Surely youarea hubby of blood to me! “ 26So He let him travel. Then she said, “ You country hubby of blood! ” ( Exodus 4: 21-26 )

Musa ‘s first brush with God was after he stayed out of Egypt for so many old ages go forthing his people suffer in torment. God contacted Moses through a combustion shrub teaching him to travel back and salvage them from the hurting they were enduring from. It was mentioned in many beginnings that the fire was firing in a shrub but the shrub was non consumed by fire. God spoke straight to him through the fire giving him instructions and naming him as the Jesus to present his people from the Egyptians. God told him to take the Israelites out of Egypt into the promise land were the land is large and is fluxing with milk and honey, the topographic point of the Canaanites and Hittites.

“ So the Lord spoke to Moses face to face, as a adult male speaks to his friend. ” ( Exodus 33:11 )

“ But since so there has non arisen in Israel a prophesier like Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face. ” ( Deuteronomy 34:10 )

“ 11.And when he came to it ( the fire ) , he was called by name: “ O Musa ( Moses ) ! 12. ” Verily! I am your Godhead! So take off your places, you are in the sacred vale, Tuwa. 13. “ And I have chosen you. So listen to that which is inspired to you. 14. ” Verily! I am Allah! La ilaha illa Ana ( none has the right to be worshipped but I ) , so worship Me, and performAs-Salat ( Iqamat-as-Salat ) for My Remembrance. 15. “ Verily, the Hour is coming and My Will is to maintain it hidden that every individual may be rewarded for that which he strives. 16. “ Therefore, allow non the 1 who believes non therein ( i.e. in the Day of Resurrection, Reckoning, Paradise and Hell, etc. ) , but follows his ain lecherousnesss, divert you at that place from, lest you perish. ” ( Qur’an 20: 11-16 )

The Prophetss and couriers of Allah are a kind of a medium through which God warned people and revealed commandments to. Prophet Musa came to the Pharaoh with these commandments and warnings but his words fell on deaf ears and Musa was declared a huffy adult male. God so commanded Musa to escort the kids of Israel out of Egypt in readying for the Pharaohs devastation because of his blasphemy. Secretly, Musa gathered his people and left town.

“ 52.And We inspired M & A ; ucirc ; SA ( Moses ) , stating: “ Take away My slaves by dark, verily, you will be pursued. ” 53.Then Fir’aun ( Pharaoh ) sent companies to ( all ) the metropoliss. 54. ( Stating ) : “ Verily! These so are but a little set. 55. “ And verily, they have done what has enraged us ; 56. “ But we are host all assembled, richly fore-warned. ” 57.So, We expelled them from gardens and springs, 58.Treasures, and every sort of honorable topographic point. ” ( Qur’an 26: 52-58 )

Musa ‘s program was perfectly unbearable to the Pharaoh. He thought of himself as the exclusive swayer and dictator of the land hence anything that happened without his consent was an act of offense. Besides that, their flight meant a important loss of his work force and productiveness will be drastically reduced. The Pharaoh so ordered his soldiers and went after the fleeing Musa and his people. The soldiers intercepted the kids of Israel at the shore of the river. Musa and his people panicked as they thought they were cornered by the soldiers and believed they were certain to decease.

“ Make non be afraid. Standstill, and see the redemption of the Lord, which He will carry through for you today. For the Egyptians whom you see today, you shall see once more no more everlastingly. The Lord will contend for you, and you shall keep your peace. ” ( Exodus 14:13-14 )

“ 15Then the Lordsaid to Moses, “ Why are you shouting out to me? State the people to acquire traveling! 16Pick up your staff and raise your manus over the sea. Divide the H2O so the Hebrewss can walk through the center of the sea on dry ground.17And I will indurate the Black Marias of the Egyptians, and they will bear down in after the Israelites. My great glorification will be displayed through Pharaoh and his military personnels, his chariots, and his charioteers.18When my glorification is displayed through them, all Egypt will see my glorification and know that I am the Godhead! ”

19Then the angel of God, who had been taking the people of Israel, moved to the rear of the cantonment. The pillar of cloud besides moved from the forepart and stood behind them.20The cloud settled between the Egyptian and Israelite cantonments. As darkness fell, the cloud turned to fire, illuming up the dark. But the Egyptians and Israelites did non near each other all dark.

21Then Moses raised his manus over the sea, and the Lordopened up a way through the H2O with a strong E air current. The air current blew all that dark, turning the seabed into dry land.22So the people of Israel walked through the center of the sea on dry land, with walls of H2O on each side!

23Then the Egyptians-all of Pharaoh ‘s Equus caballuss, chariots, and charioteers-chased them into the center of the sea.24But merely earlier dawn the Lordlooked down on the Egyptian ground forces from the pillar of fire and cloud, and he threw their forces into entire confusion.25He twisted [ a ] their chariot wheels, doing their chariots hard to drive. “ Let ‘s acquire out of here-away from these Hebrewss! ” the Egyptians shouted. “ The Lordis combat for them against United arab republic! ”

26When all the Israelites had reached the other side, the Lordsaid to Moses, “ Raise your manus over the sea once more. Then the Waterss will hotfoot back and cover the Egyptians and their chariots and charioteers. “ 27So as the Sun began to lift, Moses raised his manus over the sea, and the H2O rushed back into its usual topographic point. The Egyptians tried to get away, but the Lordswept them into the sea.28Then the Waterss returned and covered all the chariots and charioteers-the full ground forces of Pharaoh. Of all the Egyptians who had chased the Israelites into the sea, non a individual one survived.

29But the people of Israel had walked through the center of the sea on dry land, as the H2O stood up like a wall on both sides.30That is how the Lordrescued Israel from the manus of the Egyptians that twenty-four hours. And the Israelites saw the organic structures of the Egyptians washed up on the seashore.31When the people of Israel saw the mighty power that the Lordhad unleashed against the Egyptians, they were filled with awe before him. They put their religion in the Lordand in his servant Moses. ” ( Exodus 14:15-31 )

“ 59.Thus [ We turned them ( Pharaoh ‘s people ) out ] and We caused the Children of Israel to inherit them. 60.So they pursued them at dawn. 61.And when the two hosts saw each other, the comrades of M & A ; ucirc ; SA ( Moses ) said: “ We are certain to be overtaken. ” ( Qur’an 26: 59-61 )

Musa reassured his people and following the disclosure he received from God, he struck the sea with his staff and by the grace of God, the sea divided and a way emerged for them to follow. The Pharaoh, blinded by his power did n’t recognize that this was an evident miracle and he still was n’t positive. He chased on after them through the way. As the Prophet and his people exited the way go forthing the Pharaoh and his soldiers still doing their manner, the sea started shuting in on them. As they drowned, the Pharaoh tried expressing the words of penitence but they were n’t accepted.

“ 62. [ M & A ; ucirc ; SA ( Moses ) ] said: “ Nay, verily! With me is my Lord, He will steer me. ” 63.Then We inspired M & A ; ucirc ; SA ( Moses ) ( stating ) : “ Strike the sea with your stick. ” And it parted, and each separate portion ( of that sea H2O ) became like the immense, steadfast mass of a mountain. 64.Then We brought near the others [ Fir’aun ‘s ( Pharaoh ) party ] to that topographic point. 65.And We saved M & A ; ucirc ; SA ( Moses ) and all those with him. 66.Then We drowned the others. ” ( Q26: 62-66 ) .

“ But lift up your rod, and stretch out your manus over the sea and split it. And the kids of Israel shall travel on dry land through the thick of the sea. ” ( Exodus 14:16 ) .

As pointed out in both the Qur’an and the book of Exodus Musa and his people were saved from the evil purposes of the Pharaoh and his people. Musa and his people crossed the Red Sea safely with the aid of the miracles of God submerging the Pharaoh and his soldiers.

“ The Exodus across the sea and out of Egypt is in all beginnings. The Hebrews crossed the sea and the Pharaoh in chase was drowned. ” ( Wolf, 103 ) .

The Torah was non revealed in cargo like the Qur’an, it was revealed complete as a whole one time. Five books were revealed to five Prophetss in different epochs but Musa was the godly receiving system of heavenly disclosure.

“ Moses received a coil, possibly the Torah complete and non merely the Decalogue. ” ( Wolf, 105 )

“ In both Christianity and Islam, Moses was the receiver of godly disclosure. ” ( Wolf, 105 )

Moses camped on Mount Sinai for 40 yearss and 40 darks on God ‘s bids in order to have the Ten Commandments ( Torah ) . He Torah was revealed orally to Moses.

“ 12The LORD said to Moses, “ Come up to me on the mountain and stay here, and I will give you the tablets of rock, with the jurisprudence and bids I have written for their direction. “ ( Exodus 24:12 )

He left the Israelites under the attention and administration of his brother Aaron while he was gone to the mountain. The Israelites whined when Moses took longer than expected on the mountain and started oppugning the trust they had for him. It got to a point that they started doing a aureate calf out of their jewelleries and other gold ownerships in which they worshiped.

“ 148.And the people of Musa ( Moses ) made in his absence, out of their decorations, the image of a calf ( for worship ) .It had a sound ( as if it was lowing ) .Did they non see that it could neither talk to them nor steer them to the manner? They took it for worship and they wereZalimun ( wrong-doers ) . 149.And when they regretted and saw that they had gone astray, they ( repented and ) said: “ If our Lord have non mercy upon us and forgive us, we shall surely be of the also-rans. ” 150.And when Musa ( Moses ) returned to his people, angry and grieved, he said: “ What an evil thing is that which you have done ( i.e. idolizing the calf ) during my absence. Did you rush and travel in front as respects the affair of your Lord ( you left His worship ) ? ” And he threw down the Tablets and seized his brother by ( the hair of ) his caput and dragged him towards him. Harun ( Aaron ) said: “ O boy of my female parent! Indeed the people judged me weak and were approximately to kill me, so do non the enemies rejoice over me, nor put me amongst the people who areZalimun ( wrong-doers ) . ” 151.Musa ( Moses ) said: “ O my Godhead! Forgive me and my brother, and do us come in into Your Mercy, for you are the Most Merciful of those who show mercy. ” 152.Certainly, those who took the calf ( for worship ) , wrath from their Lord and humiliation will come upon them in the life of this universe. Therefore do We compensate those who invent lies. 153.But those who committed evil workss and so repented afterwards and believed, verily, your Lord after ( all ) that is so Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. 154.And when the choler of Musa ( Moses ) was appeased, he took up the Tablets, and in their lettering was counsel and clemency for those who fear their Godhead. ” ( Qur’an 7: 148-154 )

Moses was asked to order the H2O out of the stone but because he was angry with the people for ever complaining, he strikes the stone twice for H2O. His act of noncompliance was what made God punish him.

“ … because all these work forces who have seen My glorification and the marks which I did in Egypt and in the wilderness, and have put Me to the trial now these 10s times, and have non heeded My voice, they surely shall non see the land which I swore to their male parents, nor shall any of those who rejected Me see it. But My retainer Caleb, because he has a different spirit in him and has followed Me to the full, I will convey into the land where he went, and his posterities shall inherit it. ” ( Numbers 14:22-24 )

There are assorted differences of the life and actions of Musa/Moses in both Christianity and Islam. Some of these differences are due to the fact that both faiths have different bookmans, historiographers and besides positions about the interests. Due to the different positions of the bookmans and historiographers inn both faiths, the narratives will every bit hold to change in both faiths.

“ Moses or Musa is an of import figure in both the Qur’an and the New Testament. The faith of Moses, his books, and his people have a direct historical, theological and literary connexion with both Christianity and Islam.s ” ( Wolf, 102 ) .

In Christianity, the girl of the Pharaoh found the basket that Moses was wrapped into by his birth mother down the river when about to hold a bath in the river and decided she wanted to maintain the babe. Whereas in Islam, Asiyah the married woman of the Pharaoh found the basket that Musa was put by his birth female parent and set into the Nile as instructed by Allah. Asiyah decided to maintain the babe because she had no kid.

“ Sura xxvii is one of the longest sustained narrations in the Qur’an and follows the early chapters of Exodus closely. It suggests that Pharaoh ‘s married woman, non girl, found Moses, and that Moses refused an Egyptian wet nurse as in the Talmud. ” ( Wolf, 102 )

Moses the christ of God played a really of import portion of the beginning and history of faith. He was the most mentioned and one of the most determined Prophetss among all other Prophetss. Although he died before he could finish his journey to the Promised Land Moses was able to finish all the orders given to him by God. The Israelites made it into the Promised Land. Orders given to Moses helped the Israelites out of bondage and unfairness and brought them into God ‘s freedom.

“ Probably there is more infinite given to Moses in the Qur’an than any other Old Testament, even Abraham the Friend of God. The figure and symbol of Moses in the New Testament besides outweighs that of Abraham. Musa is named in 34 suras of the Qur’an and in 12 books of the New Testament. He is the popular subject of legendary stuff in the Hadith and the Church Fathers. ” ( Wolf, 102 )


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