Psychological Aspects of Cybersecurity: Human Factors, Threats, Culture and Liability

Human Factors, Threats, Culture and Liability:Psychological Aspects of Cybersecurity

Introduction

In today’s society, cyber invasion and onslaughts is going more prevailing. No 1 truly knows the motive behind such onslaughts. In some instances, it may be psychological and in others it could be a manner to achieve an epinephrine haste by occupying a high-ranking security system. While cyber onslaughts has increased, our state is seting executing actions in topographic point to safeguard our critical substructure.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

With all of that being said, Congress has a duty to the people/nation to protect and procure their freedom. Cyber onslaughts are malicious Acts of the Apostless that target information systems, substructures, and computing machine webs. Normally, the beginnings of the onslaught are unknown and the grounds of the onslaught are ill-defined. In many instances, the onslaughts are labeled as cyber warfare or cyber terrorist act. In the same manner, the people who commit these offenses are described as Communist, cyber terrorist, and black chapeau etc. However, when Congress is the focal point of the onslaught usually the mark of onslaught is our substructure.

Descriptive Labels Applied to Cybercrime

The descriptive label that would be applied to cybercrime is data security breach or cyber terrorist act. Further account of “Data Security & A ; Breach Notification Act 2012, mandates that companies have sensible security steps to protect personal information and set up a unvarying breach presentment jurisprudence ( S. 3333 ( 112th ) : Data Security and Breach Notification Act of 2012, 2012 ) .” Cyber terrorist act is when a computing machine is used as the arm for onslaught. In some instances you will happen that cyber terrorist act is the manner to seek retaliation or used as a method to intimidate or hale one. An illustration of a cyberwar possibly could be choping into aircrafts system and altering the co-ordinates of the flight.

In 1996, President Bill Clinton created a Commission of Critical Infrastructure Protection. Congress new that the state was at hazard of cyber onslaughts. Therefore, to rise consciousness and keep economic stableness the board felt it was necessary to protect critical substructure. This was a mixture of electricity, computing machine webs, communicating etc. ; because all of these elements were vulnerable of cyber-warfare. With this in head, the authorities was besides believing of protecting the public and private industries from such onslaughts. They were wholly unmindful of the dangers how much or day-to-day lives rely on computing machines. Notwithstanding the dangers and exposures they subjects themselves to when utilizing the computing machine. Another issue is happening out who are the culprits and how the onslaught were initiated. The board felt it would be most helpful if they adequately protected critical system from invasion. That meant guaranting the proper firewalls were enabled and the system was being monitored ( hypertext transfer protocol: //csciwww.etsu.edu/gotterbarn/stdntppr/ ) .

Menace Factors

In world, if the United States Infrastructure comes under onslaught the enemy could stultify our defences depending on how sophisticated the aggressor is. The possible purpose behind assailing our substructure, would be to aim our H2O supply, transit, telecommunication, energy, and last but non least finance. Our manner of populating depends on critical substructure ; if we were to lose these critical functions we would be vulnerable to the enemy. These operations are of import and we have become dependent on these webs. The doomed of electricity, telecommunications, transit, energy, and H2O would render us incapacitated. Such an onslaught would interrupt our daily life and cause mass terror and fright. Therefore, in order to forestall such an act from happening, Congress has created a new executive subdivision to unify 22 authorities bureaus that were already in being. The end was to procure the state and preserve freedom. In add-on, have the ability to fence off onslaughts and be prepared for unexpected catastrophes. To carry through this undertaking, the Department of Homeland Security had to unite the section in order to beef up the constituents. Policy tells us that through partnership with other sections and operators of critical substructure would better cyber security sharing information, which is ideal for the state.

Water Supply

Attacking the H2O supply would be the most critical onslaught on the substructure. The H2O supply is controlled by computing machine systems, which is why it poses the most security hazard. If the enemy was able to short-circuit the security characteristics, they could let go of big sums of H2O in any peculiar country. Destruction of big dikes could unleash big sums of H2O ensuing in ruinous implosion therapy, loss of life and harm to belongings.

Another exposure would be the cloaca system. The sewerage system protects public wellness and the environment ; while supplying a series of intervention that clean the H2O supply. Raw sewerage has harmful bacteriums and viruses that could be life endangering to human or animas if exposed to it.

“Bioterrorism or chemical onslaughts could present widespread taint with little sums of microbiological agents or toxic chemicals could jeopardize public wellness ( Terrorism and Security Issues Confronting the Water Infrastructure Sector, 2006 ) .” ( hypertext transfer protocol: //fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/68790.pdf ) .”

Energy

The 2nd most of import substructure that could be attacked is energy. Energy is described in two separate categorizations one being electricity and the other being natural gas. Electricity is used in everyplace i.e. houses, metropoliss and parts. It is needed for daily life such use of machines and life salvaging mechanisms. For illustration, cyber terrorist has the ability to derive entree to day-to-day power study informations. The study shows the flow of electricity in different parts.

As a consequence, a cyber terrorist would hold the ability to cognize what the busiest subdivisions of the grid were. It is of import to recognize with this information they could close down the power gird at the busiest clip of the twenty-four hours and cause craze, backflow, and confusion. Without power the United States, defences are down. “There have been incidents or believable intelligence to bespeak that a potentially good organized, riotous cyber onslaught is at hand against the electrical public-service corporation industry in general or BPA specifically, or Terrorist activity, either physical or cyber, has been perpetrated against civilian or authorities sites within the boundaries of the United States… ( Threat Conditions, n.d. ) .” hypertext transfer protocol: //info.bpa.gov/Emergency/ThreatConditions.aspx

Not merely is electricity of import to substructure but natural gas is excessively. Cyber terrorist can hold the usage or redirect gas flows. Keeping the energy a float is of import for keeping the safety and economic success in the United States. The White House Initiative has an Executive order, which is led by the Department of Energy and the Department of Homeland Security. Their occupation is to guarantee electric companies and grid operators have working cognition of cyber security potencies and prioritise their actions and investings to better cyber security. In add-on their “industry stakeholders in the energy sector, are besides lending to the development of the Cyber security Framework, which was announced as portion of Executive Order 13636 on “Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity. ( http: //energy.gov/articles/energy-department-announces-new-investments-over-30-million-better-protect-nation-s ) .”

Transportation system

A perturbation in the transit system would do a concatenation of economic break. By interfering with transit it hinder citizens and would increasingly degrade the economic system over clip span. It would hinder on programming every bit good as handiness. In similar mode, these methods would hold a negative impact on lading being transported from topographic point to topographic point. Furthermore, cyber terrorist can aim railroad operations by taking controls of the switches, extra they could take over flight package to deviate aircraft. “ Sapphire ” or “ Slammer ” worm spread rapidly through the Internet assailing 1000000s of computing machines and overpowering them with informations due to a defect in a Microsoft plan. ( CONSUMER PRIVACY DEVELOPMENTS, n.d. ) .”

Transportation system is of import to critical substructure. In order to keep a since of balance, proactive steps must be in topographic point to beef up and procure critical substructure. It is of import to hold the necessary assets including but non limited to webs and public assurance. Acerate leaf to state, the substructure must be secure in order to defy and quickly reimburse from an onslaught.

Finance

Telecommunication

Company Liabilitiess

Reducing exposures through effectual internal cybersecurity policy controls

Decision

The menace of cyber offense has risen in the United States. Congress is holding more arguments on the states ‘s cyber security, terrorist act, and breaches within our national systems. It was said by the “******* that we were in problem because cyber onslaughts have resulted in the greatest transportation of wealth in history. ( ***** ) .” Although, Legislation have been proposed to regulate the Torahs the measures have non been enacted. This is chiefly due to the fact ; the authorities and private industries have issues with the federal informations security measures. Presently, the United States has a cyber security Executive Order in topographic point.

The intent for this order, is to protect their United States from cyber bruise and the onslaughts against the states critical substructure. A menace to the substructure is major to national security. Our state relies on the substructure to maintain the mainframe secure and efficient against invasion. As stated earlier, cyber onslaughts are going more argus-eyed therefore, the authorities had to do alterations to the executive subdivision. In 2002, a new executive section was put into topographic point called the Homeland Security Act. Homeland Security Act 2002, was created to “ prevent terrorist onslaughts within the United States ; cut down the exposure of the United States to terrorist act ; and minimise the harm, and aid in the recovery, from terrorist onslaughts that do happen within the United States. (Homeland Security Act of 2002 )

Mentions

Anonymous. ( 2011 ) .Data breach and electronic offense: the Sony ‘s instance. Retrieved from gcsec.org: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.gcsec.org/blog/data-breach-and-electronic-crime-sonys-case

Anonymous. ( 2013 ) .Pull offing CyberSecurity Risk. Retrieved from Protiviti: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.protiviti.com/en-US/Documents/Newsletters/Board-Perspectives/Board-Perspectives-Risk-Oversight-Issue44-Managing-Cybersecurity-Risk-Protiviti.pdf

Anonymous. ( n.d ) .About Sony Electronics – Life at Sony. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //discover.store.sony.com/ : hypertext transfer protocol: //discover.store.sony.com/sonyjobs/pages/about/life.html

Anonymous. ( n.d ) .Corporate Mission. Retrieved from neimanmarcus: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.neimanmarcuscareers.com/story/mission.shtml

Anonymous. ( n.d ) .Mission & A ; Valuess. Retrieved from About Target: hypertext transfer protocol: //corporate.target.com/about/mission-values

Anonymous. ( n.d ) .Throught the Old ages. Retrieved from Target.com: hypertext transfer protocol: //corporate.target.com/about/history

Aspan, M. ( 2011 ) .Citi says 360,000 histories hacked in May cyber onslaught. Retrieved November 23, 2011, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.reuters.com/article/2011/06/16/us-citigroup-hacking-idUSTRE75F17620110616

Bavisi, S. ( 2009 ) . Penetration Testing. In Vacca, J. R. ( Ed. ) , Computer and information security enchiridion. Boston, MA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

Bodhani, A. ( 2013 ) . Bad…In a Good Way.Engineering & A ; Technology, 7 ( 12 ) , p64-68.

Campbell, Q. , Kennedy, D.M. ( 2009 ) . The psychological science of computing machine felons. In Bosworth, et al. , ( Eds. ) , Computer security enchiridion. New York, NY: John Wiley & A ; Sons.

Chen, C. ; Shaw, R. ; Yang, S. ( 2006 ) . Extenuating information security hazards by increasing user security consciousness: A instance survey of an information security consciousness system. Information Technology, Learning & A ; Performance Journal, 24 ( 1 ) , p1-14.

Chen, T. ; Walsh, P. ( 2009 ) . Guarding Against Network Intrusions. In Vacca, J. R. ( Ed. ) , Computer and information security enchiridion. Boston, MA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

DATALOSSdb Open Security Foundation ( 2014 ) .Data Loss Statisticss. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //datalossdb.org/statistics

Dittrich, D. , Himma, K.E. ( 2006 ) . Hackers, crackers and computing machine felons. In H. Bidgoli ( Ed. ) , Handbook of information security ( Vol 2 ) . New York, NY: John Wiley & A ; Sons.

Elgin, B. , Lawrence, D. , & A ; Riley, M. ( 2014, February 21 ) .Neiman Marcus Hackers Set Off 60,000 Alerts While Bagging Credit Card Data. Retrieved from businessweek.com: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.businessweek.com/articles/2014-02-21/neiman-marcus-hackers-set-off-60-000-alerts-while-bagging-credit-card-data

Ethical Issues. ( 2013 ) . Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //cps182cyber-crime.wordpress.com/ethical-issues/

Finklea, K.M. , Theohary, C.A. ( 2012 ) . Cyber-crime: Conceptual issues for Congress and U.S. jurisprudence enforcement.Journal of Current Issues in Crime, Law and Law Enforcement.5 ( 1/2 ) , 1-27. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //web.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/ehost/detail? vid=3 & A ; sid=79df209d-d6a2-4fd7-9761-f40b899a23e1 % 40sessionmgr4002 & A ; hid=4209 & A ; bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl # db=i3h & A ; AN=88850916

Frizell, S. ( 2014, January 29 ) .Holder: Federals Investigating Target Breach. Retrieved from Time.com: hypertext transfer protocol: //business.time.com/2014/01/29/feds-investigation-target-security/

Germano, S. ( 2013, December 27 ) .Target’s Data-Breach Timeline. Retrieved from Wall Street Journal: hypertext transfer protocol: //blogs.wsj.com/corporate-intelligence/2013/12/27/targets-data-breach-timeline/

Goldman, G. ( 2011 ) . Mass e-mail breach: Just how bad is it? Retrieved November 23, 2011, from hypertext transfer protocol: //money.cnn.com/2011/04/06/technology/epsilon_breach/index.htm

Harris, E. A. , Perlroth, N. , & A ; Popper, N. ( 2014, January 23 ) .Neiman Marcus Data Breach Worse Than First Said. Retrieved from New YOrk Times: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nytimes.com/2014/01/24/business/neiman-marcus-breach-affected-1-1-million-cards.html

Hassan, A.B. , Lass, F.D. , Makinde, J. ( 2012 ) . Cyber-crime in Nigeria: Causes, effects and the manner out.ARPN Journal of Science and Technology. 2 ( 7 ) , 626-631. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ejournalofscience.org/archive/vol2no7/vol2no7_11.pdf

Heavey, S. , & A ; Finkle, J. ( 2014, March 13 ) .Target says it declined to move on early qui vive of cyber breach. Retrieved from Reuters. Com: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.reuters.com/article/2014/03/13/us-target-breach-idUSBREA2C14F20140313

ITU. ( 2012 ) . Understanding cyber-crime: Phenomena, challenges and legal response. Retrieved from www.itu.int/ITU-D/ … / cybersecurity/ … /Cyber-crime % 20legislation % 20EV6. pdf

Kaiser, D. ( 2007 ) . Insurance options vary every bit much as cyber onslaughts.Business Insurance,41( 21 ) , 24.

Katz, K. ( 2014, February 21 ) .Security info. Retrieved from www.neimanmarcus.com: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.neimanmarcus.com/NM/Security-Info/cat49570732/c.cat? icid=topPromo_hmpg_ticker_SecurityInfo_0114

Krebs, B. ( 2014, 02 14 ) .Target Hackers Broke in Via HVAC Company. Retrieved from krebsonsecurity.com: hypertext transfer protocol: //krebsonsecurity.com/2014/02/target-hackers-broke-in-via-hvac-company/

Lewis, J. ( 2013 ) . Raising the Bar for Cybersecurity.Center for Strategic & A ; International Studies. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //csis.org/files/publication/130212_Lewis_RaisingBarCybersecurity.pdf

Mansoor, B. ( 2009 ) . Intranet Security. In Vacca, J. R. ( Ed. ) , Computer and information security enchiridion. Boston, MA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

McAfee ( 2014 ) . McAfee Labs Threats Report: Fourth One-fourth 2013. McAfee Labs. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.mcafee.com/us/resources/reports/rp-quarterly-threat-q4-2013.pdf

Metz, C. ( 2005 ) . individuality larceny is out of control. ( cover narrative ) .Personal computer Magazine,24( 14 ) , 87

Gross saless, N. ( 2013 ) . REGULATING CYBER-SECURITY.Northwestern University Law Review,107( 4 ) , 1503-1568.

Shackleford, D. ( 2013 ) . New Pathways to Network Security. InformationSecurity, 15 ( 6 ) , p10-15.

Sherr, I. , & A ; Wingfield, N. ( 2012, May 7 ) .Play by Play: Sony ‘s Struggles on Breach. Retrieved from Wall Street Journal: hypertext transfer protocol: //online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052748704810504576307322759299038

Warner, J. ( 2011 ) . Understanding cyber-crime in Ghana: A position from below.International Journal of Cyber Criminology.5 ( 1 ) , 736-749. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cyber-crimejournal.com/warner2011ijcc.pdf

Waugh, D. ( 2001 ) . Computer offense and moralss. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //homepage.ntlworld.com/woofy/ethics/ethics.pdf

Williams, M. ( 2011, May 01 ) .PlayStation Network Hack Timeline. Retrieved from pcworld.com: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.pcworld.com/article/226802/playstation_network_hack_timeline.html

Wolf, J. , & A ; Maclean, W. ( 2011 ) . IMF cyber onslaught aimed to steal insider information: Expert. Retrieved November 23, 2011, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.reuters.com/article/2011/06/12/us-imf-cyberattack-idUSTRE75A20720110612

Youderian, A. ( 2013, August 08 ) .LulzSec Hacker Gets Year in Prison for Sony Attack. Retrieved from courthousenews.com: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.courthousenews.com/2013/08/08/60130.htm

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *