Subject Leadership Review of Literature Essay

Type in ‘What makes an effectual leader/manager? ’ into any hunt engine. and immediately 1000s of definitions appear. The footings are often used. but seldom defined systematically. The National College of School Leadership specify them individually saying that ‘Leadership is about holding vision and jointing. telling precedences. acquiring others to travel with you. invariably reexamining what you are making and keeping on to things you value. Management is about the maps. processs and systems by which you realise the vision. ’ In their treatment paper ‘Transforming School: a treatment paper’ ( March 2007 ) . Estyn states that ‘The most important characteristics of good leading are a strong sense of way. a clear focal point on instruction and acquisition and a grim accent on raising standards’ . Interestingly. they don’t define direction at all. Northouse P ( 2004 ) identifies four common subjects in leading. These are ; that ‘leadership is a procedure. it involves influence. it occurs in a group context and it involves the accomplishment of goals’ .

There is an convergence between Northouse’s common subjects and the thoughts of many others including Grint’s ( 1997 ) thoughts of four ‘problems’ ( procedure. place. doctrine and pureness ) and Blanchard and Hersey’s ‘Situational Leadership’ . In recent old ages. Leadership has begun to be aligned with concern and direction theories and theoretical accounts. This has led some to oppugn the differences between leading and direction. In his book ‘The new significance of educational change’ . Fullan ( 1991 ) states that leading is related to ‘mission. way and inspiration’ whereas direction is related to ‘designing and implementing programs. working efficaciously with people and acquiring things done’ . In his book ‘Managing on the Edge. Pascale R ( 1990 ) states that ‘Managers do things right. while leaders do the right thing’ .

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Despite the entreaty of a differentiation between leading and direction. there is uncertainty as to whether the two can be distinguished in pattern. Gosling and Murphy ( 2004 ) cite the demand for a leader to hold consistence. predictability and a sense of continuity – things usually associated with direction – proposing an convergence between the two. An single must hold the ability to come on from a ‘management’ function to a ‘leadership’ function whilst being the same individual. which leads to Mintzberg ( 1975 ) proposing the thought that ‘it may be more utile to gestate of leading as one of the functions a director undertakes. than as something separate and apart. ’

Relationship Between Leadership and School Improvement

Busher H and Harris A ( 2000 ) province that ‘research findings…have revealed the powerful impact of leading on procedures related to school effectivity and improvement’ . The TTA provinces in its National Standards for Capable Leaders ( 1998 ) that the nucleus intent of the capable leader is ‘to provide professional leading and direction for a topic to procure high quality instruction. effectual usage of resources and improved criterions of acquisition and accomplishment for all students. ’ Pupil accomplishment is ever a cardinal consideration for any instructor and Field et Al ( 2000 ) acknowledge this stating that ‘effective leading will hold a important consequence on student accomplishment. ’

The capable leader has a cardinal function in advancing high criterions within schools. and the importance of this leading function is recognised by the significance placed on it during reviews. Key Questions 5 ; ‘How effectual are leading and strategic direction? ’ . 6 ; ‘How good do leaders and directors evaluate and improve quality and criterions? ’ and 7 ; ‘How efficient are leaders and directors in utilizing resources? ’ . concentrate entirely on leading and direction in a school and the direct consequence their actions have on student accomplishment and advancement. It is important hence. as a capable leader to retrieve that ‘subject leaders can do a difference to capable country public presentation in much the same manner as head-teachers contribute to overall school performance’ Busher H and Harris A ( 2000 ) .

Features of Effective Leadership

Looking back throughout history. the features of an effectual leader are defined through the actions and ideas of so many. Traveling back to ancient Greece. Xenophen. a philosopher and soldier. gave a list of qualities required to be a General – a Leader. These included: moderation. justness. sagaciousness. good humor. presence of head. tactfulness. humanity. understanding. helpfulness. bravery. munificence. generousness and helpfulness. Indeed. General Bernard Montgomery – a successful British General during the Second World War frequently quoted the qualities that the Greek philosopher Aristotle regarded as being of import for leaders. These included justness. prudence. moderation and fortitude. In the class of his research. psychologist Daniel Goleman developed these thoughts further still and discovered that effectual leaders are likewise in one important manner ; ‘they all have a high grade of emotional intelligence. ’

He believes that the indispensable ingredient for leading is Emotional Intelligence. and this includes self-awareness. self-regulation. motive. empathy and societal accomplishment. In the Bible. Jesus says ’Let the Greatest among you become as the youngest and the leader as one who serves. ’ On a similar line. British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli is quoted to hold said ‘I must follow the people. Am I non their Leader? ’ A common yarn appears in the thoughts of so many leaders through out history ; that leading is non about commanding people. but about animating them sufficiently to do them desire to follow you. General William Slim. a British Military Commanding officer who served in both the First and Second Wold Wars said ‘The existent trial of leading is non if your work forces will follow you in success. but if they will lodge by you in adversity and licking. ’

Leadership Manners and their Impact

In order for those work forces to ‘stick by you in adversity and defeat’ . an effectual leader must certainly necessitate to hold a successful leading manner. allow for what is go oning and for the undertakings or procedures that are taking topographic point. To measure up this. many ‘leadership styles’ have been developed. Hay Mcber ( 2000 ) . a direction consultancy. reveals six leading manners: visionary. coaching. affiliative. democratic. pacesetting and commanding. Goleman et Al ( 2002 ) investigated these leading manners. and concluded that the first four were associated with a positive consequence on public presentation than the others. They besides concluded that leaders had to be good at all four manners. pulling on them as needed harmonizing to personalities and state of affairss.

They besides discovered that pace-setting and commanding leaders might hold a short-run positive impact under certain conditions. but sooner or subsequently fail because they de-motivate people. It is hence. of import as a capable leader to be cognizant of the manner we lead. accommodating the manner depending upon the peculiar incident or state of affairs. Field et al ( 2000 ) province that ‘a broad repertory of manners permits the leader to do speedy determinations when necessary. to confer with as appropriate and by and large to move harmonizing to the state of affairs and conditions at the time’ . It is hence clear that a leader who can accommodate their leading manner to accommodate the state of affairs is traveling to be a batch more successful than one who sticks to the same inflexible. de-motivational manner.

National College of School Leadership. Effective School Leadership. Cited from: hypertext transfer protocol: //forms. ncsl. org. uk/media/603/D7/effective-school-leadership-contributions-of-school-effectiveness-research. pdf

Estyn. Transforming Schools: a treatment paper. March 2007. Her Majesty’s Inspectorate for Education and Training in Wales. ( pp30. )

Goleman D. Emotional Intelligence. 1995. Bantam Books. ( Constructing Emotionally Intelligent Organisations pp 327-332. )

The Holy Bible. New Testament. Luke 22: 21-30. Oxford University Press.

Northouse P. 2004. Leadership: Theory and Practice. London: Sage Publications Ltd. pp19-37.

Grint K. 1997. Leadership: Classical. Contemporary and Critical Approaches. Oxford. Oxford University Press.

Blanchard K. Hersey P. 1968. Situational Leadership. Cited from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. 12manage. com/methods_blanchard_situational_leadership. hypertext markup language

Fullen M. 1991. The New Meaning of Educational Change. London: Cassell.

Gosling J. Murphy A. 2004. Leading Continuity. Exeter: Centre for Leadership Studies. University of Exeter.

Mintzberg H. 1976. The Manager’s Job: Folklore and Fact. Harvard Business
Review. 55 ( 4 ) : 49-61.

TTA. 1998. National Standards for Capable Leaders. London: TTA.

Busher H and Harris A. 2000. Capable Leadership and School Improvement. London: PCP. pp183-196.

Hay Management Consultants. 2000. The Lessons of Leadership. London: Writer.

Goleman D. Boyatzis R and McKee A. 2002. Cardinal Leadership. Boston: Harvard Business Review.

Field K. Holden P and Lawler H. 2000. Effective Capable Leadership. London: Routledge. pp 221.

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