Survey on livestock odour court actions

Abstraction

Smells from farm animal operations are an issue of concern for many communities and farm animal manufacturers. An epidemiological survey ( Schiffman, 1995 ) showed that smells can adversely impact the tempers of neighbors of farms. Some people felt choler, defeat, and similar emotions due to chronic exposure, particularly when they derived no benefit from or had no control over the farm animal operation.

In this context, to measure the figure of odour ailments from farm animal rise uping registered in the Health Offices and to measure the degree to which odour can impact wellness of the nearby occupants, a study was carried out in 10 Health Offices and among 100 breeders and 100 plaintiffs. 3 self-designed questionnaires were set for each of them and were based upon the different facets that would find the tendency of odour ailments, the farming patterns by breeders, the location of farm animal production sites and the wellness jobs faced by plaintiffs.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Consequences led to reason that the figure of odour ailments addressed to the governments decreased by 16 % from twelvemonth 2007 to 2009. Furthermore the figure of dispute established against odour nuisance has besides decreased. This indicates that the breeders are staying by the jurisprudence and the people populating in the locality of farms are being less affected by the odour nuisance. On the other manus in respects to wellness, a study carried out among 100 plaintiffs showed that 43 % of them reported to hold concern job due to exposure to livestock smell. Allergy job was besides reported by the respondents ( 27 % ) . Furthermore it could besides be concluded that 47 % of them claimed to be annoyed by odour chiefly in the forenoon.

It was found that for most of smell ailments which were justified, the demands of the healthful notices issued by the Health Inspectors were chiefly to switch farm animal activity to another approved site. Consequently livestock engendering which were carried out near from human habitation have been removed and so the ailments stopped as actions were taken.

Introduction

During the last two decennaries, the farm animal sector in Mauritius has undergone a really rapid development from a portion clip backyard activity to a more intensive method of rise uping. Traditionally livestock production was practiced on a domestic footing. These animate beings were fed with some grains and kitchen waste and were allowed to scrounge for themselves. Over the old ages the farm animal industry has easy evolved from a traditional manner of production to a semi-industrial base particularly in the domestic fowl and hog sector. This is due to the turning population, the higher consumer demand and their eating wonts. However in line with this rapid growing in the farm animal sector, the healthful policy has had to germinate in analogue to the market demand and industrialisation.

The primary aims of environmental policy in Mauritius is to protect and pull off the state ‘s environmental assets such that their capacity to prolong development is unimpaired and guarantee that future coevalss ; more specifically to supply for the legal model and the mechanism to protect the natural environment, to be after for environmental direction and to organize the inter-relations of environmental issues and to guarantee the proper execution of governmental policies and enforcement commissariats necessary for the protection of human wellness and the environment of Mauritius ( State of the Environment, 1990 ) .

The aims of the survey are to:

  • Retrieve figure of ailments due to odour nuisances from Health offices to determine the extent to which these jobs exist and affect people.
  • Analyse the ordinances and environmental norms which have been established to slake odour nuisances.
  • Assess the alterations that must be brought approximately harmonizing to the ordinance both on the substructure and husbandry patterns and propose recommendations for betterment of the existent state of affairs.

LITERATURE REVIEW

LIVESTOCK SECTOR IN MAURITIUS

In Mauritius, the farm animal plays an of import function in nutrition straight through the ingestion of animate being merchandises by the farm animal proprietors and indirectly through the sale of animate beings and carnal merchandises as a beginning of income. The farm animal production is widely distributed across the island and tends to be more concentrated near residential countries as residential houses encroach upon rural countries one time occupied merely by agribusiness. Table 1 shows the distribution of farm animal manufacturers in Mauritius.

Potential Impacts of farm animal raising

The major environmental jobs associated with a farm animal farm are odour, coevals of solid waste and coevals of effluent, particularly during operation. The different environmental factors, impacts and nuisances related to assorted stages of such activities.

Livestock smell

Odour refers to the complex combination of gases, bluess, and dust that consequence from the provender method, carnal life agreements and the anaerobiotic decomposition of manure. Livestock production installations, irrespective of the waste disposal, provender direction, or airing system employed produce more than 160 odourous compounds ( Funk, 2003 ) .

The chief odourous compound groups associated with animate being wastes are: aliphatic ( fatty ) acids, aminoalkanes, ammonium hydroxide, aromatics, and S ( organic and inorganic ) ( Wilber & A ; Murry, 1990 ) .

Malodour is the consequence of the uncomplete anaerobiotic decomposition of stored manure. During the decomposition procedure, malodorous intermediate compounds are produced and can roll up if deficient populations of bacteriums that degrade these compounds are present. It is these accretions that result in odour nuisance. Complete decomposition would bring forth odorless gases, C dioxide and methane, every bit good as some odourous gases, ammonium hydroxide and H sulphide, that contribute small to overall odour strength ( Powers et al. , 1999 ) .

Ammonia and odour are ranked by the National Research Council of the National Academies in the USA as their highest concerns for emanations from confined animate being feeding operations ( CAFO ) ( National Research Council of the National Academies, 2002 ) .

Odour Emission Sources AND PROCESS

The chief odour emanation beginnings include the undermentioned: farm animal edifices, manure storage units, land application sites, method of land application, feed storage and mortality storage or disposal units.

The emanation procedure of smells can be divided into two waies, gaseous emanations and aerosol ( dust ) emanations, though both are typically combined within an overall smell plume. The effects of aerosol emanations once they reach a odor receptor ( worlds ) are instantaneous. Gas emanations from farm animal systems, peculiarly extremely volatile compounds like ammonium hydroxide, have much more elusive effects ( Jacobson, 1995 ) . Gas effects typically manifest themselves in the signifier of long-run environmental debasement instead than short-run odour effects.

Smells tend to linger in an country on humid, windless yearss. Odours will disperse on dry, blowy yearss ( Powers, et al. , 1999 ) .

Smells caused from a domestic fowl operation AND SURROUNDINGS

The smell that is detected from a domestic fowl operation is a complex mixture of gases. Most frequently the smell is a consequence of the uncontrolled anaerobiotic decomposition of manure. However, feed spoilage can besides lend to the smell.

Ammonia can make strong smells near the manure storage or edifice, but is non a important constituent of odour downwind from a domestic fowl installation. Ammonia is extremely volatile and moves upward in the ambiance rapidly where it is diluted.

Beginnings of smells in and around domestic fowl edifices include ( Chastain, 2000 ) :

  • Wet litter from leaky waterers
  • Domestic fowl bedclothes that is overloaded with manure ( that is excessively small bedding comparative to the sum of manure produced by the birds ) ,
  • Wet manure below caged bed houses due to H2O leaks or unequal drying by airing,
  • Spoiled or mouldy provender,
  • Dust from feeders and animate beings,
  • Exhaust airing air,
  • Uncovered manure hemorrhoids,
  • Ill managed stacking sheds,
  • Ill managed or located covered manure hemorrhoids, and
  • Improper disposal of dead animate beings

Difference in the odor between hogs and cattles

The difference in odor between hogs and cattles is due to different microbic communities. Microorganisms which are found in the animate being ‘s digestive piece of land and manure, work in the absence of air ( anaerobiotic ) , break down and degrade the manure, and as a consequence produce the odorous compounds that are interpreted as odor.

The type of odour doing molecule that really gets produced is influenced by differences in substrate handiness in swine and cattle manures. “ Odour is related to diet and digestive procedures which vary among species ” .

In hogs, microbic transition of manure is done in both the big bowel and their body waste. Amylase is an enzyme that is released into the hog bowel to assistance in the dislocation of starches. Since this facilitated procedure exists, more protein is passed through the bowel which consequences in more micro-organisms, bring forthing more odorous compounds.

Swine eliminations are the most liquid of all farm animal eliminations which rapidly leads to anaerobic decomposition and bring forthing stronger and more toxic smells than dry manure ( Ritter, 1989 ) .

Another feature of swine manure is that it has really high biological O demand ( BOD ) and will get down to anaerobically break up within 24 hours of riddance ( Barrington, 1997 )

Cattle, on the other manus, have a faecal composing that contains lower sums of protein and a higher per centum of amylum. The micro-organism found in the cattle manure will reap the amylum as their chief beginning of nutrient alternatively of protein, and as a effect, produce differing compounds than swine, normally considered less violative.

Odour measuring AND PERCEPTION BY PEOPLE

Odour is measured harmonizing to 3 parametric quantities:

  • Quality

Odour quality is a comparing with a known smell such as icky eggs or roses.

  • Strength

Strength is the sum of fresh air needed to thin odorous air to the threshold smell degree where it can merely be detected.

  • Happening

Happening is the frequence and length of clip the odour persists.

Odour is a serious nuisance job. It has been noted by odour research workers that perceptual experiences of odour differ from single to single and are characterized by personal penchants, sentiments, experiences, and variableness in our olfactive systems ( Williams, 1996 ) .

Neighbors may digest frequent or intense smells that are of short continuance and make non linger in the air. Offensiveness and sensitiveness to odours varies from individual to individual. Odours are context dependent – a individual ‘s experiences, memories, emotions and ocular perceptual experiences all combine in finding whether or non an smell is acceptable. A clean, orderly farm animal farm with landscape gardening is effectual in making a non-offensive state of affairs. If person perceives swine to be foul animate beings, that individual would be more likely to happen swine smells rather obnoxious. Some people are more stressed by the idea of the smells than they are by any existent physical effects from the smells.

Socio-economic AND HEALTH concerns ABOUT ODOUR

There are some really serious societal branchings involved with the issue of livestock smell ( Palmquist, 1997 ; Thu, 1998 ) :

  • Decreased existent estate values every bit good as negative effects on touristry and diversion.
  • Stressed relationships between households, neighbors and full communities.
  • Civil rights concerns

Common wellness ailments among workers at carnal production installations include asthma-like syndrome, aggravation of preexisting asthma, sinusitis, chronic bronchitis, nasal mucose membrane redness, nasal and pharynx annoyance, caput achings, and musculus achings and strivings ( VonEssen & A ; Romberger, 2003 ) .

Furthermore, acute exposures to elevated degrees of H sulphide from agitated manure ( when managing carnal waste ) can do reactive air passage hurt syndrome ( RADS ) , lasting neurological harm, and even decease ( Schiffman, et al. , 2001 ) .

Exposure to environmental smells from industrial and agricultural premises, in add-on to bring oning irritation responses in a dose-dependent mode, have been shown to be either straight associated with stomachic symptoms every bit good as general health-related ailments under utmost exposure conditions, or indirectly mediated through odour irritation under moderate odour exposure conditions ( Sucker, et al. , 2009 ) .

In agricultural communities, wellness ailments associated with odorous air pollution have escalated dramatically with the proliferation of large-scale carnal eating operations that house 1000s of animate beings at a individual installation ( Schiffman, et al. , 2000 ) .

Legal Considerations AND ENFORCEMENT

In Mauritius, in order to cover with jobs happening due to livestock smell, the Public Health Act has been adopted since old ages. The competent Authority to cover with smell in farm animal activity is the Health Inspectorate cell of the Ministry of Health & A ; Quality of Life.

Furthermore it is deserving to observe that the Officers of Local Authority and Officers of the Ministry of Environment and NDU do lend to halt illegal big graduated table concern. The environmental guideline for the raising of up to 5000 domestic fowl caputs ( mention to Appendix 4 ) has been prepared by the Ministry of Environment & A ; NDU to guarantee that all environmental issues are punctually taken into consideration by stakeholders. Similarly another guideline for rise uping up to 20 cowss caputs, 50 caprine animal caputs and 50 sheep caputs has been set by this Ministry.

Due to increase in family outgos, many households have ventured into farm animal activity without appropriate licenses to run such type of activity and accordingly give rise to odour ailments. In order to transport out any farm animal activity, the site must be approved by the Ministry of Environment, that is an EIA ( Environment Impact Assessment ) license must be obtained. The breeder must obtain a Health Clearance from the Health Engineering Unit of the Ministry of Health & A ; Quality of Life anterior EIA license is granted.

The Health Inspectorate of the Ministry & A ; Quality of Life is responsible to take necessary actions to slake odour nuisances. Livestock smell may be assessed as a public nuisance under Section 18 of the Public Health Act. There are administrative processs that have to be respected. Ailments related to livestock smells are registered into a Complaint Book in the Health Offices. The review of the nuisance state of affairs is under the legal power of the Health Inspectors and if it is found to be justified, the Officer will function a notice under Section 29 of the Public Health Act whereby a hold is granted to slake the nuisance. The minimal hold is 48 hours. Failure to slake said nuisance within prescribed hold or extra hold entails tribunal actions, that is dispute is established under Section 32 of the Public Health Act ( refer to Appendix 9 ) and the affair is brought before the District Court to be dealt consequently.

The local authorization every bit good as the above mentioned implementing bureaus will implement relevant statute law refering to rise uping of farm animal and monitoring conformity with the conditions falling under their horizon.

Odour Control

Odour control has become a necessary and built-in portion of farm animal production. Unlike H2O quality issues that can be measured and monitored, it is more hard to objectively mensurate livestock smell.

The scientific discipline of odour rating is subjective because many aspects ( e.g. , character, acceptableness, strength, hedonistic tone, and so forth ) can merely be quantified by a subjective instrument ( the homo olfactory organ ) . Manufacturers need to use basic smell rules to their direction and engineering to forestall inauspicious environmental and public wellness impacts from the smells and gases generated from their farm animal and domestic fowl production sites.

Manufacturers need to implement odour control engineerings which fall into three classs that are intended to:

  • Prevent smells from being generated.
  • Capture and destroy smells before they are released to the ambiance.
  • Disperse or camouflage smells so they do non make a nuisance when transported off from the odour beginning.

Technologies that prevent the coevals of smells are frequently categorized as manure intervention. Anaerobic digestion, aeration or oxidization, provender additives, manure additives, pH control, and healthful housework autumn within this class.

Technologies that gaining control and dainty smells include manure storage screens, organic mats, and biofilters.

Technologies that disperse or mask smells include tonss, chimneys, vegetated shelterbelts, shelterbelt walls, site choice, reverse distances, deodourant, or dissembling agents. Some dust filtrating methods, such as dry filters or wet scrubbers, can besides cut down odour emanations when the dust is odorous, as in edifice airing air flows.

It is widely recognised that good design, building and direction patterns can understate inordinate odour emanations. The undermentioned direction patterns are suggested:

  • Avoid inordinate manure build-up in farm animal installations and below floor cavity countries.
  • Ensure that external unfastened drains are imperviable, with non-earthen base and sides that are kept clean and dry between usage.
  • Manage ponds to guarantee minimum crusting and an even outflowing lading that does non transcend the design capacity of the pool system.
  • Where practical, integrated pig farm solids ( sludge and showings ) into the dirt within 24 hours of distributing.
  • Have equal lightning to ease cleansing and equal airing in farm animal installations to keep aerophilic status and to thin the smell.
  • Manage on-site manure storage and treating countries to avoid odour nuisances.
  • Advise neighbors in progress of any direction patterns that may take to odour nuisances as many odour ailments originate from dissensions and misinterpretation.

The key to the odour impact on a community is separation distance, the distance between an odour beginning and the belongings line, nearest neighbor, or residential country. Neighbours and communities are being strained by the farm animal odour issue ( Chapin, et al. , 1998 ) .

The ideal separation distance between a farm animal installation and the nearest neighbor to avoid an odour nuisance has non been determined and is slightly subjective. Merely Pig Breeding Regulations in Mauritius have separation distances for hog installations. New installations should be located where odour jobs can be avoided or minimized.

The proverb ‘out of site – out of head ‘ holds true for pig farms. Planting trees around bing pig farms or locating new pig farms suitably will do them less obvious to the populace and, by and large, cut down the incidence of odour ailments. Properly planted tree buffers besides have the possible to heighten odour scattering, thereby cut downing odour nuisance.

Methodology

In order to achieve the aims, 3 studies have been carried out. This was made possible by the usage of a ego designed questionnaire which was targeted to 3 chief cardinal sources viz. : Health Offices, breeders and plaintiffs. 10 out of 13 Health Offices in the different territories of Mauritius were interviewed viz. Mahebourg Health Office, Flacq Health Office, Bel Air Health Office, St Pierre Health Office, Rose Hill Health Office, Port Louis Health Office, Curepipe Health Office, Rose Belle Health Office, Bambous Health Office and Riv Du Rempart Health Office whereby ailments sing odour nuisance from farm animal genteelness had been registered for twelvemonth 2007, 2008 and 2009. For each ailment a questionnaire was filled.

On the other manus, another ego designed questionnaire was filled in by 100 breeders across the island. The list of 100 breeders was obtained from Agricultural Research and Extension Unit ( AREU ) of Quatres-Bornes which contained the breeder ‘s name and reference. This session included a visit of the premises to measure the degree of conformity with the norms and to cognize the grade of cognition every bit far as waste direction, husbandry patterns and smells were concerned.

Furthermore from each Health Offices, a random sample of 10 plaintiffs was taken and thenceforth the study was conducted among 100 plaintiffs to measure the degree of satisfaction and to cognize whether the odour nuisance was still predominating. They were assisted to make full in the questionnaire by sing all the ethical facets. The study was carried out during the summer in the month of December 2009 and January 2010 and was conducted in Creoles linguistic communication.

After transporting out the 3 studies, informations were analysed utilizing Statistical Package for Social Scientist ( SPSS 16.0 ) and Excel. The points in the completed questionnaires were coded and compiled to ease informations entry and where necessary cross tabular matter was done to analyze and compare consequences.

RESULTS AND FINDINGS

Following the studies carried out in assorted Health Offices, among breeders and plaintiffs, the informations obtained can be represented as below.

Datas collected from Health Offices

After the study has been carried out in 10 wellness offices, the undermentioned findings and analysis have been made.

Odour ailments registered at Health Offices

From the information collected, it was found that the entire figure of odour ailments registered decreased from 2007 to 2009. In twelvemonth 2007 out of 327 odour ailments registered, most were associated with domestic fowl genteelness ( 98 ) and in twelvemonth 2008 domestic fowl genteelness remained the highest with 115 odour ailments. In twelvemonth 2009 out of 274 odour ailments registered, most ailments were associated with cowss ( 104 ) followed by hogs ( 96 ) and domestic fowl ( 38 ) and the least was caprine animal ( 36 ) .

Delay ailments attended and justification of the ailments

Most of the ailments have been attended within one twenty-four hours for the past three old ages. In 2007, 61 % of the ailments have been attended within one twenty-four hours. In 2008, 57 % have been attended within one twenty-four hours and in 2009, 54 % of the ailments have been attended within one twenty-four hours.

From the figure of ailments registered over these three old ages, more than 90 % were justified ( 93 % in 2007, 95 % in 2008 and 97 % in 2009 ) and healthful notices were issued for more than 90 % of them.

Requirements of the Sanitary Notices.

It can be observed that in 2007, most of the demands in the Sanitary Notices were to maintain shelter clean ( 59 % ) . These have decreased well during the undermentioned old ages. Alternatively there has been an addition in the demands to switch farm animal activity in 2008 by 26 % and in 2009 it has decreased by 12 % to 26 % .

Conformity of Sanitary Notices within prescribed hold

Conformity with the healthful notices was more than 95 % for the three old ages studied. In other instances, the Sanitary Authority/Health Inspectors granted extra hold between 3-5 yearss so that the Sanitary Notices could be complied with.

In all three old ages, the per centum hold granted was largely within 3-5 yearss. In some instances the extra hold was merely 48hrs due to the nature of nuisance justifying immediate actions. Overall the per centum in conformity of Sanitary Notices increased during the last three old ages by 28 % .

Actions initiated for non-compliance with Sanitary Notices

In all instances covering with non-compliance with Sanitary Notices, disputes have been established and brought before the District Court to cover consequently. In bulk of instances, for the past three old ages accused pleaded guilty and accepted that they had non abided by jurisprudence.

Most of the mulcts given by the District Magistrate prevarication between Rs 500 to Rs 1000. Very few mulcts lying between Rs 1000 to Rs 2000 were given.

In all three old ages at that place has been 100 % suspension of the nuisance before opinion has been pronounced. There had been no demand for the Court to publish farther Court Orders to slake the nuisance.

Number of disputes established due to odour nuisance from twelvemonth 1995-2009

It has been found that there has been a considerable lessening in the figure of disputes established due to odour nuisances. Pig raising has been shown to be the greatest odour nuisance to the vicinity. Most of the healthful demands were to switch pig raising activities which were being carried out excessively near from human habitation harmonizing to the Pig Breeding Regulation 2001 to a site approved by the Sanitary Authority.

Consequences among breeders

After the study has been conducted among 100 breeders, the following informations have been collected.

Sociodemographics

It was found that the breeders belonged to different age groups and can be represented as follows: 36 % ( 31-40 year ) , 30 % ( 41-50 year ) , 17 % ( 21-30 year ) , 11 % ( & gt ; 50 year ) and 6 % ( & lt ; 20 year ) .

In respects with the degree of instruction, it was found that most of them ( 51 % ) were educated till primary degree, 29 % boulder clay secondary degree, 1 % attained till third degree and 19 % of them did non go to school.

Their agriculture activity was either on a full-time footing ( 38 % ) or a parttime footing ( 62 % ) .

Degree of instruction of breeders harmonizing to their age

A cross tabular matter was carried out to measure the degree of instruction among the 100 breeders with regard to their age group. From table 5, it can be observed that:

  • 4 % of the breeders of age & lt ; 20 years were educated till secondary degree.
  • 12 % reached till primary degree in the age class of 21-30 year.
  • In the age class of 31-40 year, 17 % of them were educated till primary degree, 15 % secondary degree and 4 % did non go to school.
  • In the age class of 41-50 year, 18 % were educated till primary degree, 5 % secondary degree and 7 % were illiterate.
  • 3 % of the age group of & gt ; 50 years were educated till primary degree, 2 % boulder clay secondary degree and 6 % did non go to school.

Percentage of breeders advised on proper waste disposal harmonizing to their age

Another cross tabular matter was carried out to measure the age group of breeders who were advised on proper waste disposal from governments concerned. From the above tabular array, it can be observed that most of the respondents ( 23 % ) who were given advice were chiefly in the group class of 31-40 year and 8 % of the breeders in the age group of & gt ; 50 responded to hold non been advised by the governments concerned. Very few in the age of & lt ; 20 old ages were non given advice ( 1 % ) .

Cleaning and pest disease control

Among the 100 breeders interviewed it was found that 44 % of the sheds are cleaned daily, 42 % of them are cleaned hebdomadal, 10 % biweekly and 4 % are cleaned on a monthly footing.

Most of the breeders ( 80 % ) carry out pest disease control while 20 % of them do non.

Composting

Among the 100 breeders interviewed, it was found that 65 % of them practise composting and most of the cowss breeders ( 24 % ) do composting, 23 % of domestic fowl breeders pattern this method and 18 % of caprine animal breeders do composting. In the other no hog breeders responded to make composting.

State of airing in conformity to building stuff

It can be noted that most of the sheds are made up of concrete and the degree of airing is good for 20 % of them. 19 % which have a good airing system are made up of concrete and corrugated Fe sheets. Very few of them have a bad airing system.

Disposal of wastewaters

The method used for wastewater disposal practiced by the breeders and it can be observed that 74 % of them disposed the wastewaters in soaking up cavity, 17 % get rid of the wastewaters in infected armored combat vehicle and 9 % let the wastewaters travel into the surface drain.

Disposal of solid waste

The method used for solid waste disposal practiced by the breeders. It can be observed that 64 % of the solid wastes are stored in cavities, 20 % go along with wastewaters, 11 % are kept aside in farms to be burned subsequently and 5 % are stacked in the unfastened.

Findingss from plaintiffs

After the study has been conducted among 100 plaintiffs, the following informations have been collected.

Frequency of ailments made by plaintiffs for the same smell nuisance

Among the 100 plaintiffs interviewed, it was found that 17 % of the respondents made ailment one time at the wellness offices, 38 % of them made twice for the same odour nuisance, 35 % of them thrice and 10 % complained more than thrice.

The ground which leads the plaintiffs for kicking more than one time was that the demands to slake the nuisance were non completed by the breeders and accordingly the nearby occupants were disturbed. It has been noted that most of the demands ( 42 % ) were to switch farm animal activity to another site approved by the Sanitary Authority, 21 % were to take accretion of manure and 20 % were maintain the sheds clean.

Most of the clip taken for suspension of nuisance was greater than 10 yearss ( 73 % ) and this taken was perceived as excessively long by 49 % of the plaintiffs.

Odour exposure clip in a twenty-four hours

The smell exposure clip in a twenty-four hours and it was found that most of the plaintiffs interviewed were being disturbed by smell in the forenoon ( 47 % ) , 29 % of them were being exposed in the afternoon and 24 % complained odour nuisance during the whole twenty-four hours.

Location of farm animal installation

It can be found that most of farm animal installation ( 45 % ) are situated less than 8 m from residential country, 40 % of them are located at a distance of 9-15 m from plaintiffs ‘ houses and 6 of them are situated a distance greater than 50m.

Health jobs reported by plaintiffs

The wellness jobs associated with farm animal smell and it was found that concern ( 43 % ) was the highest reported wellness jobs among plaintiffs. Furthermore 27 % reported to hold allergic reaction and 24 % complained to hold both wellness jobs. On the other manus, 6 % of the respondents reported no wellness jobs.

Health jobs related to exposure clip

A cross check survey as described by the above tabular array was carried out to find the wellness jobs in relation with the exposure clip to odour. It was noted that most of the respondents were annoyed by smell during the forenoon clip. 17 % of them reported to hold concern due to odour exposure chiefly in the forenoon, 10 % reported to hold allergic reaction and 16 % reported to hold both concern and allergic reaction.

Health jobs related to distance of farm animal installations to plaintiffs ‘ houses

Another cross tabular matter was carried out described by the tabular array 9 to measure the nexus between the distance of farm animal installations to plaintiffs ‘ houses and the wellness jobs reported. It was found that concern was the common wellness jobs reported by the ailments. 22 % of the respondents shacking less than 8m from the genteelness installations reported to hold wellness jobs and this wellness job was besides reported by 6 % of those populating greater than 50m. 15 % holding allergy jobs reside less than 8m but those populating greater than 50m did non describe any allergy job.

Chapter 5

Discussion

It is unrealistic non to anticipate a farm animal operation to run with some smell. The nuisance degree has nevertheless decreased from the past three old ages. This has been shown by the figure of ailments registered which has decreased by 16 % from 2007 to 2009 ( mention to postpone 3 ) . Furthermore it has been found that the frequence of the odour ailments was highest during the months of January, February, March and November. This indicates that people are more irritated by smell during the summer months due to high humidness and less during the winter months.

From the consequences obtained it has been found that most of the ailments have been attended within one twenty-four hours by the Health Inspectors and healthful notices have been issued to those which were justified. From table 4, it can be concluded that in twelvemonth 2007, most demands of the healthful notices were to maintain shelter clean but in the twelvemonth after there has been an addition by 26 % in the demands to switch farm animal activity to a site approved by the Sanitary Authority and in 2009 this demand has been decreased by 12 % . This may be due to altering manners of life, scarceness of land and building of edifices for residential intents which lead to transport farm animal activity near residential countries. Once the farm animal activity has been shifted to the approved site and all demands have been taken to maintain sheds clean, it is obvious that there will non be any demand to switch the farm animal site in the undermentioned old ages but there may be other demands which can take to odour ailments.

95 % of the healthful notices were complied with and disputes were established for those who were non. From figure 2, it is found that the figure of disputes due to odour nuisance had well decreased which means that the breeders are staying by the jurisprudence and the Health Inspectors are making a good follow up to guarantee that the healthful demands are being complied in a right mode and within the given hold.

If a good smell control is to be carried out by breeders across the island, it is of import that they are recognised by concerned governments. In other words, the breeders should hold a license for rise uping animate beings which are issued by the local authorities organic structures. In add-on they should register themselves at the Agricultural Research extension Unit ( AREU ) which keeps a close monitoring and supply of import advice sing farming. From table 6, it can be found that most of the breeders who do non hold valid licenses are parttime breeders ( 38 % ) and merely 19 % of full-time breeders possess the valid license. This may be because the parttime breeders carry out the farm animal activity to acquire extra gross and they do non take the duty to acquire a valid license.

The improper disposal of wastewaters frequently cause odour nuisance. Therefore placing the method used by breeders to dispose the wastewater was critical. Among the 100 breeders interviewed, it was found that most of them ( 74 % ) dispose the wastewaters safely in cavities but yet 9 % let the wastewaters go into surface drain which lead to odour nuisance. This indicates that the advice given by the governments refering proper disposal of waste was utile and the breeders had adopted the good pattern for waste disposal.

Many plaintiffs have complained more than one time for the same odour nuisance at the wellness offices and 49 % of them perceived that the clip taken to slake the nuisance which was greater than 10 yearss as excessively long. But it should be noted that there is a hold given by the Sanitary Authority depending upon the demands and it was found that most of the demands were to switch farm animal activity. So it is rather obvious that such demand can non be done within 10 yearss, it need a sensible clip for it to be complied with.

Smells tend to linger in an country on humid, windless yearss ( Powers, et al. , 1999 ) . Consequences from the study indicate that 47 % of the plaintiffs are being disturbed by odour chiefly in the forenoon when there is high humidness ( refer to calculate 8 ) . Among the 100 plaintiffs interviewed, most of them reported to hold concern, some complained to hold allergic reaction and some reported to hold both concern and allergic reaction but no 1 reported any other wellness jobs.

Following the study, it was found that most of the dwellers populating less than 8 m from the farm animal installation complained to be more disturbed by smell and reported to hold concern, some populating 9-15 m apart besides reported the same and this wellness job was besides reported by those shacking at a distance greater than 50 m from farm animal installation.

There is merely one ordinance in Mauritius which regulates the distance from the farm animal installation and any edifices or houses ( Pig Breeding Regulation ) which states that pigpens shall non be erected within 8 m from any house but the inquiry which arises is that is this distance plenty to guarantee that the people populating in the locality are non annoyed by odour nuisance.

Furthermore odour from domestic fowl pens and chiefly cowbarns besides affects the occupants populating near the farm animal production. In twelvemonth 2009 the highest figure of odour ailments registered were chiefly from cowbarns. But unluckily there is no ordinance to modulate the distance from cowbarns to human habitation and as a consequence the people are being annoyed by this nuisance.

Decision

It is undeniable that the farm animal sector is going an of import concern where attention needs to be devoted to guarantee safer terminal merchandises and to avoid ailments. Livestock production does bring forth smells and there is no manner to extinguish those smells wholly. However from the study carried out, it has been found that the figure of odour ailments has well decreased over the last three old ages. In 2007 and 2008, odour ailments from domestic fowl genteelness were highest but this has decreased in the undermentioned twelvemonth due to delocalization and the good public presentation of the Sanitary Authorities. In the present state of affairs, odour from cowss engendering is still raging the people populating in the locality of the farm animal installation. So there should be execution for the statute law for the set back distances from cowss rise uping and human habitation. Proper site choice from production installations with distance from neighbors is of import. But even if Regulation for Pig Breeding do be which stipulate a minimal distance of 8 m from human habitation and in conformity of this Regulation, valid license is besides given to pig breeders but yet the odor from pigpens is truly a nuisance to the nearby occupants. In position of this state of affairs, the Pig Breeding Regulation should be reconsidered and revised and the set back distance from human habitation should be more terrible.

Recommendation

  1. Regular site visits should be conducted by concerned governments to guarantee that breeders are recognized through a license and that farm animal raising is being done in a safe mode.
  2. Educational plans should be carried out excessively create consciousness among breeders sing safe agriculture.
  3. Technologies that gaining control and dainty smells like manure storage screens, organic mats, and biofilters should be encouraged to utilize by breeders.
  4. The DBM may help those interested in the farm animal concern to guarantee they are provided with all the necessary demands before a good start.
  5. The statute law needs to be improved and should be more terrible sing the set back distances between a farm animal installation and residential country.

APPENDIX 4

MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND NDU ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINE No. 1 POULTRY Raising

1. Purpose OF GUIDELINE

This environmental guideline for the raising of up to 5000 domestic fowl caputs has been prepared by the Ministry of Environment & A ; NDU to guarantee that all environmental issues are punctually taken into consideration by stakeholders.

2. SITING OF ACTIVITY

In conformity with the Planning Policy Guidance 2004 of the Ministry of Housing and Lands and policies of the Ministry of Environment & A ; NDU, the selected site shall:

  • Satisfy a minimal distance of 200 m from the colony boundaries and sensitive land utilizations
  • Not happen within an Irrigation Zone
  • Be limited to agricultural land merely
  • Be at least 200 m from any slaughter house
  • Be at least 200m from any borehole
  • The effluent disposal system shall be at least 30 m from any H2O class.
  • In position of biosecurity hazards, the distances allowed between domestic fowl farms runing at different graduated table of activities are as follows:
  • In the instance of the presence of more than one bing domestic fowl farm at the same distance of the proposed development, the buffer distance required would be that of the largest domestic fowl farm.
  • In the instance of several bing domestic fowl farm at different distances, the buffer distance required would be that of the nearest domestic fowl farm.
  • Not found within the quarry country of a precedence Mineral Resource Site or within 200m of its buffer.
  • Not found within the buffer countries around rock suppression workss

APPENDIX 5

MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND NDU

ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINE No. 29 LIVESTOCK REARING INCLUDING CATTLE, GOAT AND SHEEP

1. Purpose of Guideline

This environmental guideline for the raising of up to 20 cowss caputs, 50 caprine animal caputs and 50 sheep caputs has been prepared by the Ministry of Environment & A ; NDU to guarantee that all environmental issues are punctually taken into consideration by stakeholders.

2. Locating of Activity

In conformity with the Planning Policy Guidance 2004 of the Ministry of Housing and Lands, the selected site shall:

  • Satisfy a minimal distance of 200 m from the colony boundaries and sensitive land utilizations ;
  • Be limited to agricultural land – If the land extent exceeds 10,000 M2 or has been acquired after 30 September 2005, a written application shall be made at the Ministry of Agro-Industry and Fisheries for a land transition license ;
  • Not happen within an Irrigation Zone ;
  • Not happen within a precedence Mineral Resource Area or within 200m of its buffer ;
  • Be at least 200 m from any slaughter house ;
  • Be at least 200m from any borehole.

The edifices shall be at least 30 m from a river or canal and no graze activity shall be allowed at a distance of less than 16 m from rivers and canals.

The site may be within the buffer zone of bad vicinity activities such as:

  • Stone suppression works, Asphalt mix works, Concrete batching works
  • Quarry site, while esteeming a reverse of at least 200 m from the boundary of the Mineral Resources Area.
  • Landfill

APPENDIX 6

THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACT 2002

( Act No. 19 of 2002 )

Part IV – ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

15. Prohibition to transport out an project

  1. No advocate shall get down, continue with, carry out, execute, or behavior or cause to be commenced, proceeded with, carried out, executed or conducted
  1. An project specified in Part A of the First Schedule, without an blessing of a preliminary environmental study in conformity with subdivision 16 ;

16. Preliminary Environmental Report

  1. A preliminary environmental study in regard of an project specified under Part A of the First Schedule shall be –
  1. in such signifier as may approved by the Director ;
  2. punctually signed by the advocate of the project or his duly appointed legal representative ; and
  3. deposited at the Director ‘s office in 5 transcripts or in such extra transcripts as the Director may bespeak.
  1. A preliminary environmental study shall incorporate a description of the project with specifics of –
  1. its location and its surrounding ;
  2. its procedure, design and size ;
  3. any informations or information necessary to place and measure the effects which the project is likely to hold on the environment, people and society ;
  4. the steps which the advocate proposes to take to avoid, cut down and, where possible, remedy any important consequence that the project is likely to hold on the environment ; and
  5. such other facets of the project as the Director may necessitate.
  1. A preliminary environmental study shall be accompanied by
  1. a site program bespeaking the location of the project ;
  2. a non-technical sum-up, where the study is prepared by a adviser ;
  3. a certification issued by a notary showing his sentiment as to the ownership of the land on which the project is to be executed, or where the advocate is non the proprietor of the land, by a written grounds of the permission of the proprietor, and a certification issued by a notary showing his sentiment as to the proprietor ‘s rubric.
  1. The Director may bespeak –
  1. such extra information from the advocate as he thinks necessary ;
  2. any public section, an enforcing bureau, any non-governmental organisation or any other individual, to subject its or his observations in composing on the preliminary environmental study within non more than 14 yearss from such petition.
  1. After scrutiny of a preliminary environmental study and such extra information and observations as he may hold obtained, the Director shall mention the study to the Minister with such recommendations as he thinks tantrum.
  2. On being referred a preliminary environmental study under subdivision ( 5 ) , the Minister may –
  1. O.K. the study with such conditions as he deems appropriate ;
  2. reject the study ; or
  3. request entry of an application for an EIA license in regard of the project to which the study relates.
  1. Where a petition is made under subdivision ( 6 ) ( degree Celsius ) , the application for an EIA license shall be in the same from and be processed in the same mode as if the project were an project under Part B of the First Schedule.
  2. Where preliminary environmental study contains any false or deceptive information or any material skip, the Minister may revoke an blessing granted under this subdivision.
  3. Any advocate who gives false or deceptive information, or fails to unwrap any material fact or information in a preliminary environmental study, shall perpetrate an offense.

APPENDIX 7

PUBLIC HEALTH ACT

Interpretation of “ nuisance ”

Without bias to any environmental jurisprudence, “ nuisance ” includes –

  1. a vas or other conveyance in such a province or status as to be deleterious or unsafe to wellness ;
  2. a failure to provide or an unequal or faulty proviso or employment of drain, watercloset, toilet or cesspit adjustment, and any other affair or circumstance whereby premises is rendered deleterious to wellness ;
  3. a street, route, watercourse, pool, ditch, trough, watercourse, sink, watertank, cistern, watercloset, earthcloset, toilet, urinal, cesspit, soakaway cavity, infected armored combat vehicle, cesspool, soilpipe, wastepipe, drain, sewer, refuse receptacle, ashcan, dungbin, refusepit, sloptank, ashpit, and manure piles so disgusting or in such a province or so located or constructed as to be deleterious to wellness ;
  4. a watercourse, canal, pool or H2O in which animate beings, utensils or apparels have been washed or into which H2O used in the lavation of apparels has escaped, or has been discharged and which from that or any other cause is in such a province as to be deleterious to wellness ;
  5. a well, armored combat vehicle, pool, reservoir, canal or conduit –
  1. the H2O of which is so corrupt with drosss ;
  2. which is otherwise so unwholesome as to be deleterious or unsafe to the wellness of individuals populating near or utilizing that H2O ; or
  3. which is calculated to advance or worsen epidemic diseases ;
  1. a stable, cowbarn, pigpen, or other premises for the usage of animate beings which is in such a status as to be deleterious to wellness, or any animate beings so kept as to be deleterious to wellness ;
  2. an accretion or sedimentation of H2O, manure, soil or other affair, wheresoever situated, deleterious to wellness ;
  3. a God’s acre, graveyard or topographic point of entombment, so situated or so overcrowded with organic structures, or otherwise so conducted as to be deleterious to wellness ;
  4. a mill or trade premises doing or giving rise to odors or effluvia which are violative or deleterious or unsafe to wellness ;
  5. a aggregation of H2O, sewerage, rubbish, garbage, fecal matter, or other fluid or solid substance which –
  1. licenses or facilitates the genteelness or generation of animate being or vegetable parasites of adult male or domestic animate beings or of insects, or of other agents which are known to transport those parasites ; or
  2. may otherwise cause or ease the infection of work forces or domestic animate beings by those parasites ;
  1. a Ce cavity, latrine, urinal, dung cavity or ash cavity likely to be deleterious or unsafe to wellness ;
  2. an accretion or sedimentation of garbage, offal, manure, or any other affair which is violative, deleterious or unsafe to wellness ;

APPENDIX 8

PUBLIC HEALTH ACT

( Section 29 )

Notice to take nuisance

  1. Where the Sanitary Authority is satisfied of the being of a nuisance, he shall function a notice in the signifier set out in the Second Schedule –
  1. on the writer of the nuisance ;
  2. where the writer of the nuisance can non be found, on the resident or proprietor of the premises on which the nuisance arises or continues, necessitating him to take it within the period specified in the notice, non being less than 48 hours nor more than one month from the clip of service of the notice, unless cause is shown to the Sanitary Authority for protracting the period and to put to death the work and make such things as may be necessary for that intent.
  1. The Sanitary Authority may, if it thinks fit, stipulate any work to be executed to forestall a return of the nuisance under subdivision ( 1 ) .
  2. Where the nuisance arises from the privation or faulty building of any construction or where there is no resident of the premises, the notice shall be served on the proprietor.
  3. Where the writer of the nuisance can non be found and the Sanitary Authority is satisfied that the nuisance does non originate or go on by the act, default or sufferance of the resident or proprietor of the premises, the Sanitary Authority may slake the nuisance or make what is necessary to forestall its return.

APPENDIX 9

PUBLIC HEALTH ACT

( Section 32 )

Failure to slake nuisance

  1. Where a individual on whom notice under subdivision 29 has been served, fails to follow with the notice, he shall perpetrate an offense and shall, on strong belief, be apt to a mulct of non less than 1,000 rupees.
  2. Where the Sanitary Authority is non satisfied that the nuisance has abated, the Court may farther order the writer to slake the nuisance to the satisfaction of the Sanitary Authority within a prescribed hold.
  3. In instance the nuisance still persists after order from the Court –
  1. the writer of the nuisance shall perpetrate an offense and shall, on strong belief, be apt to a mulct which shall non be less than 1,000 rupees or more than 10,000 rupees ;
  2. the Court may farther order him to slake the nuisance to the satisfaction of the Sanitary Authority within a prescribed hold ; and
  3. a undertaking force may be set up by the Sanitary Authority to slake the nuisance.
  1. In the executing of an order made under subdivision 3 ( B ) , the Sanitary Authority may –
  1. be assisted by the Police ;
  2. forcibly enter any premises in regard of which the order has been issued ; and
  3. make whatever may be necessary to give consequence to the order.
  1. All the disbursals incurred in slaking a nuisance under subdivision ( 3 ) , shall be recoverable from the writer of the nuisance.

APPENDIX 10

PIG BREEDING REGULATION

( G.N. 59 of 1927 )

  1. Pigs shall at all times be kept in hordeolums or enclosures ( hereinafter called pigpens )
  2. Sties shall in no instance be erected within eight meters of any house, brooding, hut or edifice used or intended to be used for human habitation, provided that the distance of such pigpens from any street, route or public topographic points shall non less than 30 meters within the bounds of a town, 20 meters within those of a declared small town and 15 meters in all other vicinities.
  3. The size of pigpens shall be such as to let one metre square of floor infinite per animate being.
  4. The wall, roofs and floors of pigpens shall be of noncombustible and impermeable stuff and if the walls be of masonry, brickwork or concrete, they shall be plastered in cement finished with a smooth surface. Walls and roofs shall be limewashed at least one time yearly and at such other times as the Sanitary Authority may order.
  5. The mean tallness of the pigpens shall be at least two and a one-fourth meters, and half the country of the hordeolums be roofed in.
  6. ( a ) The floors shall incline into drainage channels, and the liquids drainage shall be led outside the pigpens through a pipe dispatching into a trap gulley fixed outside the pigpen. The at bay gulley shall be connected, by agencies of a four-inch watertight drain, to the public drainage system. ( B ) If no public drainage system exists, a watertight catchpit shall be used alternatively of a at bay gulley, and such gimmick cavity shall be emptied at least one time a twenty-four hours. The size of the gap of the gimmick cavity shall non transcend 50s square centimeters and its deepness shall non be greater than 50 centimeters.
  7. All woodwork shall be tarred or painted.
  8. Sties shall be kept clean and in a province of good fix. All rat-holes found in the pigpens or in their locality shall be filled in with broken glass and covered with cement.
  9. Any breach of the commissariats of these ordinances shall be punishable by a all right non transcending one 1000 rupees and by imprisonment non transcending six month.

Mentions

  1. Anon. , 2005. Livestock odor direction hypertext transfer protocol: //www.agmkt.state.ny.us/soilWater/aem/forms/LivestockOdorManagement6-05.pdf
  2. Banerjee G.C. , ( 1997 ) A text edition of animate being farming
  3. Bion St. Lawrence County Project, ( Jan 2008 ) Project Overview hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bionslcproject.com/overview.php
  4. Chastain, J.P ( 2000 ) . Odour control from domestic fowl installations. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.clemson.edu/extension/livestock/livestock/camm/camm_files/poultry/pch9_03.pdf
  5. Digest of agricultural statistic 2008, Ministry of Finance & A ; Economic Empowerment, Central Statistic Office hypertext transfer protocol: //statsmauritius.gov.mu
  6. Eaton D. L. , ( 1996 ) . Swine Waste Odor Compounds. Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Livestock Environmental Systems, Des Moines, Iowa. 14 pp.
  7. Guidelines for farm animal operation in Ohio ( 2003 ) hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ohiolivestock.org/images/1_livestock_guidelines03.pdf
  8. Heber, A.J. , Bundy D.S. , Lim T.T. , ( 1998 ) . Odor emanation rates from swine parturiency edifices. Pp. 304-310 in Animal Systems and the Environment. Proceedings, International Conference on Odor, Water Quality, Nutrient Management, and Socioeconomic Issues, Des Moines, Iowa, July 20-22.
  9. Jocobson L.D. , Sweeten, J.M. , Miner J.R. , Williams C.M. , and Auverman B.W. , ( 2001 ) . Chapter 1 in Odor Mitigation for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations. National Center for Manure and Animal Waste Management ( USDA ) , Ames, Iowa.
  10. Miner J.R. , ( 1975 ) . Management of olfactory properties associated with farm animal production. In Pull offing Livestock Wastes. Proceedings of 3rd International Symposium on Livestock Wastes. St. Joseph, Mich: American Society of Agricultural Engineers.
  11. Ministry of Environment, Department of Environment, ( 1990 ) State of the Environment.
  12. Moines D. , ( June 2007 ) Odor Primary Factor Limiting Livestock Expansion hypertext transfer protocol: //slurrystore.com/odor_news.html
  13. Nicolai R. , and Pohl S. , ( 2005 ) Understanding farm animal olfactory properties. Livestock development in South Dakota: Environment and Health hypertext transfer protocol: //agbiopubs.sdstate.edu/articles/FS925-A.pdf
  14. Powers W. J. , ( 1999 ) Odor control for farm animal systems. Journal of carnal scientific discipline, J Anim Sci 1999. 77:169-176. hypertext transfer protocol: //jas.fass.org/cgi/reprint/77/suppl_2/169.pdf
  15. Powers W.J. , ( July 2004 ) Practices to cut down olfactory property from farm animal operations. Iowa State University hypertext transfer protocol: //www.thepigsite.com/articles/1150/practices-to-reduce-odor-from-livestock-operations
  16. Sweeten J.M and Miner J.R. , ( 1993 ) . Odor strengths at cattle feedlots in nuisance judicial proceeding. Bioresource Technology 45:177-188.
  17. Schiffman S. , Sattely Miller E.A. , and. Suggs M.S. ( 1995 ) . Consequence of environmental olfactory properties emanating from commercial swine operations on the temper of nearby occupants. Brain Research Bulletin, Vol. 37. No. 4. pp. 369-375.
  18. Toit, A.J. 1989. Practical odour nuisance gauging: two instance surveies of nonsubjective odour making in agribusiness and industry. Water Science Technology 21:1077-1087.
  19. Thu, K. , Donham K. , ( 1997 ) . A control survey of wellness and quality of life of occupants populating in the locality of big scale swine production installations. Journal of Agricultural Health Safety 3:13-26.
  20. Van Kleeck, R.J. and N.R. Bulley. 1985. An appraisal of separation distance as a tool for cut downing farm/neighbor struggle in Agricultural Waste Utilization and Management – Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Agricultural Wastes, Dec. 16-17. pp 446- 453, ASAE, 2950 Niles Rd. , St. Joseph, MI 49085-9659 USA.
  21. Watts, P.J. , ( 1991 ) . The Measurement of Odours: A Discussion Paper for Australia. AMLRDC Report No. DAQ. 64/5. Feedlot Services Group, Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Toowoomba. 40 pp.
  22. Watts, P. J. , and Tucker R. W. , ( 1993 ) . The consequence of ration on waste direction and odour control in feedlots. In Recent Progresss in Animal Nutrition in Australia 1993. pp 117-129. University of Armidale, NSW, Australia.
  23. Westerman P. W. , and R. Zhang. , ( 1995 ) . Aerobic intervention of carnal waste for olfactory property control. Pp. 218-222 in Proceedings of International Livestock Odor Conference. Iowa State University, Ames
  24. Wilber, C. , and Murry C. , ( 1990 ) . Odor beginning rating. pp. 68-72.
  25. Zhang, R. , and Westerman P.W ( 1995 ) . Solid-liquid separation for carnal waste. Pp. 228-233 in Proceedings of International Livestock Odor Conference 1995. Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *