The Contributions of Greeks and Arabs to Mathematics Essay

The Greeks are one of the historical groups that contributed largely to civilisation. They have parts in scientific discipline. doctrine. and many other of import Fieldss like mathematics. It was when Greece started to see mathematics as a scientific discipline when the people of ancient Egypt and Babylon went to Greece for trade. However. although the Greeks have much parts in mathematics. their finds sing math were non recorded instantly instead spread through word of oral cavity. That is why Thales and Pythagoras did non hold written texts about their work.

Other Greeks viz. Proclus and Eudemus merely did a sum-up of the work of Pythagoras and Thales ( “Greece: Mathematicss. ” 2001 ) . Early Grecian Mathematicss Thales is the 1 responsible for the theorem that says “any angle inscribed in a hemicycle is a right angle” . This is really of import and is really utile in the field of Geometry. Aside from his theorem about the right angles in a hemicycle. he was besides said to hold measured the tallness of the pyramids merely by mensurating their shadows utilizing a stick.

Another thing that made Thales celebrated is the fact that. although the Egyptians and Babylonians brought the thought of mathematics to Greece. he was able to form these thoughts rationally ( “Greece: Mathematicss. ” 2001 ) . Thales is besides the 1 responsible for practising geometry in mundane life since it is usually used at that clip merely for the exclusive ground of measuring. Because of this. other Greeks have been encouraged to follow what Thales had started. They are Pythagoras and Plato ( “Greece: Mathematicss. ” 2001 ) . Pythagoras is non merely a mathematician but besides a adult male of uranology and faith and that’s what made him celebrated that clip.

In fact. he founded a school in which the members are called Pythagoreans that would shortly analyze about finds and new thoughts in mathematics. uranology and doctrine ( “Greece: Mathematicss. ” 2001 ) . Talking about the parts of Pythagoras to math. he was the 1 who introduced that the amount of angles of a trigon was half the cardinal angle of a circle. Besides. he proved that the plane infinite around a point could be divided into six equilateral trigons. four squares or three regular hexagons ( “Greece: Mathematicss. ” 2001 ) . But we all know that these are non the most celebrated plants of Pythagoras.

Every pupil today in secondary school knows the Pythagorean Theorem which states that the amount of the squares of the shorter sides of a right trigon is equal to the square of the 3rd side. There is no uncertainty that this is one of the most utile theorems in mathematics today. The Pythagorean had been used in turn outing several other theorems in geometry and trigonometry. However. although this is one of the most celebrated plants of Pythagoras. there were some studies that tracked down the Pythagorean Theorem to the Babylonians and that Pythagoras is the lone 1 who provided cogent evidence to the theorem.

Although this is the lone seeable work of Pythagoras today. his followings. the Pythagoreans are the 1s who introduced the usage of mathematics in faith. nature. etc ( “Greece: Mathematicss. ” 2001 ) . These Pythagoreans are responsible for the development of modern geometry. Hippocrates is one of them who studied about the four-sided. Another one is Hippias. the 1 who discovered the quadratrix which was the first curve that could be defined but could non be constructed with a straightedge and compass. The dodecahedron which was discovered by a Pythagorean named Hippasus is a regular polyhedron that consists of 12 faces.

Another part of Greeks in geometry is the fact that there is a relationship between the volume of a cone and a cylinder with equal base and tallness. This was discovered by Democritus who besides computed for the volume of the Egyptian pyramids. It is besides the find of the Greeks that concerns built-in concretion which s attributed as the method of decrease. This method involves increasing the figure of sides of a rectilineal figure to come close it to the country of a curvilineal figure ( “Greece: Mathematicss. ” 2001 ) . Although Plato is a really celebrated Greek philosopher. he besides has his just portion in ancient Grecian mathematics.

However. it started with his wise mans foremost. Theodorus. his instructor in Athens. proved that the square roots of non-square whole numbers from 3 to 17 are irrational. Eudoxus is the 1 responsible for the celebrity of ratio and proportion in mathematics because of his book. Menaechmus. on the other manus. is credited for the belongingss of conics. Aristotle ( which was said to be Plato’s brightest pupil ) . has a book on indivisible lines and mechanics. Euclid. one of the greatest mathematicians of all clip wrote a book consisting of all known mathematical cognition which became celebrated for its being simple and logical.

Last but non the least is Archimedes who contributed many of import mathematical constructs. He was the 1 who discovered the construct of perkiness and was besides the 1 who was known for puting ships on bow utilizing merely a mirror and the sun’s beams. Aside from these finds. his plants besides consist of summing up of squares of back-to-back Numberss. three-dimensional equations. and work outing for the country of a parabolic section. He besides proved that the volume of a domain is one-third the volume of a cylinder with the same radius and tallness. and that the surface country of a domain is four times the country of its greatest circle ( “Greece: Mathematicss. ” 2001 ) .

Contribution of Arabs to mathematics If the Greeks are the 1s responsible for geometry and trigonometry. they are really celebrated for the numbers and Numberss. The Arabs are responsible for composing numbers from right to go forth. The Arabs besides introduced the figure nothing. It was introduced by Muhammad Bin Ahmad. When nothing was discovered. many disregarded it as of import in the field of mathematics yet zero enabled many mathematics bookmans to deduce several Torahs and theorems that we are utilizing right now.

If the Greeks focused largely on geometry such as plane figures and curvilineal figures. the Arabs managed to work out Algebraic jobs utilizing arithmetic methods. The besides have their just portion when it comes to the construct of fractions ( “Arab parts to mathematics and the debut of the Zero. ” 1998 ) . An Arab known as al-Khawarzmi is responsible for work outing additive and quadratic equations in algebra. Aside from that. he besides provided the geometrical methods of work outing these equations. He was besides the 1 who discovered that 2nd grade equations have two roots.

Because of his great parts to algebra. it reported that the word algebra was named after him because he is considered as the male parent of Algebra in Arab mathematics. He is besides the 1 who discovered geometric methods for finishing the square ( Drakos. 1996 ) . With his methods. no symbols were used and no nothing and negative coefficients were allowed. He is besides the 1 who discovered the name algorithm ( “Arab parts to mathematics and the debut of the Zero. ” 1998 ) . Because of these people. the Arabs learned to hone geometrical algebra and they were besides able to work out equations up to the 4th grade.

Another Arab is Abul Wafa which made parts about the polyhedral theory. Aside from that. he is besides celebrated for his usage of the tangent map and the find of the tabular arraies of sines and tangents. What was truly astonishing about him is his find of these things utilizing the orbit of the Moon! His trigonometric tabular arraies were accurate up to eight decimal topographic points while Ptolemy’s were merely accurate up to three topographic points ( Drakos. 1996 ) . Another great Arab mathematician is Al-Karaki who wrote books sing arithmetic and algebra. The Arabs besides continued the Greeks’ surveies about conics and developed the geometry of conelike subdivisions.

Al Tusi discovered that trigonometry should be separated from trigonometry which opposes Euclid’s theory of analogues. Because of his find. he could be considered as the laminitis of non-Euclidian geometry ( “Arab parts to mathematics and the debut of the Zero. ” 1998 ) . Abu l’Hasan al-Uqlidisi has his parts in algorithm in generation and denary fractions. Al Hasib is celebrated for his plants in integer solutions. He besides solved for the solutions of 4th degree equations and was able to work out for quadratic equations with irrational coefficients.

Al Hasib is sometimes known as Abu Kamil. What made Abu Kamil celebrated is his cognition about irrational coefficients which were non used by the celebrated Al Khwarizmi. Abu Bakr al-Karaji is besides one of the Arab mathematicians which discovered the numerical solutions to the equations of the signifier. Omar Khayyam. another mathematician every bit good as poet is concerned about three-dimensional equations and studied on parabolas and circles. Al Kashi is besides an Aras which contributed to a really of import construct of. He calculated its value up to 16 denary topographic points ( Drakos. 1996 ) .

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