The World Heritage List In Africa Tourism Essay

1. Introduction

The undermentioned portion of the study will give a general debut to the site which has been chosen to be added to the list of World Heritage Sites, viz. being The Maasai Mara National Reserve. Furthermore the state and the part will be described followed by statements why peculiarly this site was chosen and further on calling all the standards of the World Heritage Committee which the site meets. In add-on a concise analysis will be carried out utilizing the Fermata method. This method will assist to enter all the resources the site has to offer in order to develop a scheme on how to develop touristry within this country. At the terminal the result of this chapter ‘s research will be summarized in a short decision.

General Information on The Maasai Mara National Reserve

The Maasai Mara National Reserve is besides known as ”the Mara ” . Historically, Maasai Mara obtained its name from the native people of Kenya the Maasai folk who lived along the Mara River. However, the modesty is merely a part of the Greater Mara Ecosystem, which includes a group ranches for illustration koiyaki, lemeki, Ol chorro Saina Maji moto Naakara Ol derkesi and Kiminet. The modesty is topography of unfastened Savannah grassland in the thick of bunchs and acacia trees along the south-eastern country of the park. The modesty covers an country of 1,510 square kilometers in the south-western Kenya. In the northern portion, the modesty is chiefly covered with Mara-Serengeti ecosystem this covers 25,000 square kilometers between Tanzania and Kenya and in the South It is bounded by the Serengeti Park.


The Maasai Mara modesty is located at an height between 4,875 and 7,052 pess above sea degree giving it a humid clime with moderate temperature. Daytime temperatures run at 85A°F ( 30A°C ) and dark temperatures bead to around 60A°F ( 15A°C ) . The rain falls between March and May and shortly in November and December. Between July and October the conditions is dry hence the flora is in abundant therefore touristry acquire more active in July and October to see the park ‘s wildlife.


Harmonizing to, The Maasai Mara type of touristry is ecotourism. The ecosystem holds one of the highest king of beasts densenesss in universe with over two million Wildebeest, Zebra and Thomsons Gazelle that migrate yearly. This action is known as “ Natures passion drama ” It occurs between the month of July and August.

Additionally the Mara modesty is besides place to the largest concentration of wildlife. These include the “ Large Five ” ( Leopards elephants king of beastss rhinos and American bison ) zebras, antelope, wildebeest, Oribis, hyaena, camelopard, warthogs, gazelles, hartebeests, Hippo, crocodiles to advert a few.

The Maasai civilization is yet another major attractive force, because of their reliable civilization that ‘s why it is recognised as one of the best-known folks in universe for their bright colored apparels and traditional dances, keepsakes, art and collectables that explain their alone tradition. Furthermore Bird observation is yet another beginning of touristry. The Maasai Mara boasts over 400 different birds ‘ species. Therefore it attracts bird lover.

Arguments for the site

In the followers, the pick of the “ Maasai Mara Natural Reserve ” as a possible hereafter World Heritage Site will be justified with the aid of UNESCO standards. The Maasai Mara Reserve is most celebrated for its alone wildebeest migration which can non be found anyplace else on planet Earth. The happening of the “ large five ” every bit good as the wintering topographic point for many endangered species makes the modesty an of import country that has to be protected in the hereafter. Below three standards will be mentioned which can be referred to the Maasai Mara Reserve

Criteria V: to be an outstanding illustration of a traditional human colony, land-use, or sea-use which is representative of a civilization ( or civilizations ) , or human interaction with the environment particularly when it has become vulnerable under the impact of irreversible alteration.

This standard can be related to the Maasai community life in peace and harmoniousness with the wildlife since a long clip. The Maasai community used the land for many old ages while they kept in head to conserve the prevailing wildlife in a responsible manner.

Criteria VII: To incorporate greatest natural phenomena or countries of exceeding natural beauty and aesthetic importance.

With its one-year wildebeest migration from the Serengeti to the Maasai Mara Reserve the site fulfills the standard of “ exceeding natural beauty and aesthetic importance ” since there is no comparable natural phenomenon worldwide. Further on, the Maasai Mara National Reserve is equipped with beautiful savanna grasslands and plenty different herbivores and bird species. Furthermore, the “ large 5 ” can be found within the modesty what is besides really alone.

Criteria Ten: to incorporate the most of import and important natural home grounds for unmoved preservation of biological diverseness, including those incorporating threatened species of outstanding cosmopolitan value from the point of position of scientific discipline or preservation.

Since the modesty is an of import wintering topographic point for many different species the standard of “ important unmoved preservation ” is warranted decidedly. Besides the happening of carnivores such as the king of beastss or the chetahs are really of import for the modesty because they are listed as threatened. Furthermore, they keep the balance of prey Numberss what is important for the ecosystem.

Analysis utilizing the Fermata method

In order to come up with a good scheme on how to develop touristry within the Mara part, it is of great importance to cognize what resources are already available at this minute. Therefore the FERMATA method has been chosen, supplying four different tabular arraies, viz. intrinsic and extrinsic values, qualifiers and waypoints. These tabular arraies categorize everything that can be found in and around the site and can function touristry intents.

Intrinsic values

Describing a universe heritage site means specifying intrinsic and extrinsic values of the site. Intrinsic values are those which originate at the resource itself. Hence, intrinsic values are of natural character. These intrinsic values are for case: Scale, unity and aesthetic of the landscape every bit good as diverseness, forte, conspicuousness, entreaty, range and kineticss of resources.

In footings of the description of the landscape, the Massai Mara Reserve is characterized by the Mara-River which divides the Reserve into two parts. Further on, the assortment in altitudinal scope between 200 and 1000 metre makes the Massai Mara a diverse country for all different sorts of birds and vegetations. With a entire range of 1,510 square kilometres the modesty provides home ground for 1,300,000 wildebeest, 360,000 gazelles and 191,000 zebras. Additionally, many carnivores every bit good as more than 600 bird species can be found in and around the modesty. In footings of human intercession, the modesty is managed by the Narok County Council and the Transmara County Council who set up several regulations and ordinances refering behaviour within the Massai Mara Reserve. Furthermore, the Massai Community lost much of their land because it became a protected country of the modesty. Furthermore, many farms developed in the northern portion of the modesty due to its fertile land. Referred to tourism some 45 tented cantonments are distributed all over the modesty which arouses a batch of damaging actions such as high H2O ingestion or dry-season grass fires caused by tourers. ( Appendix: Table 1 )

Traveling farther, it is of import to take the resources into consideration. Due to its river, the grassland and the evergreen Amazonian forests the Massai Mara Reserve offers a diverse landscape. However, the landscape itself can non be considered as really particular but the migration of the herbivores that grants the modesty a general feeling of outstanding beauty. As already mentioned before, the wildebeest migration can be seen as the pull factor of the site since tourers travel around the universe to see this alone natural phenomenon. Although this spectacle can be seen as the chief attractive force of the modesty many tourers come every bit good to detect the more than 600 different bird species whereof plentifulness are listed as endangered. Finally, the Mara River is the lone dynamic resource which can be found at the modesty since the remainder chiefly consists of grasslands and Savannah. Situated in Kenya, the clime can be defined as tropical with long rainfalls from April to June. ( Appendix: Table 2 )

Extrinsic values

By and large said extrinsic values can be seen as extra characteristics in the natural site, which besides make people come to see the topographic point apart from the fact that they want to bask the outstanding natural resource. These characteristics are made by worlds and harmonizing to FERMATA Inc. ( 2002 ) they can be divided up into the undermentioned classs: Social, Cultural, Historical, Recreational and Economic. For a brief description see the appendix XYZ – I

To use this analysis of the extrinsic values to the Maasai Mara Reserve, it can be said that the modesty gives place to the Maasai people. It is estimated that around 500,000 Maasai live in that country, but due to their fright of governmental intercession into their life style, miscounts frequently occur. The Maasai belong to those folks that have non changed a batch in their original civilization, rites and patterns irrespective of the modern universe ‘s influences they are exposed to. Additionally it should be mentioned that they are chiefly in ownership of the land and cover with its direction, nevertheless, recently they have lost a batch of land to parks and militias, which prohibit them from accessing of import beginnings of H2O, grazing land and musca volitanss where salt can be found. ( Masaai Association, 2010 ) From a cultural point of position the small towns of the antecedently mentioned Maasai folk can be seen as an pulling property, for illustration due to their houses solemnly built from natural resources or their really simple life style which is absolutely adjusted to their natural environment. Sing the historical values one will hold troubles happening any in the Maasai Mara modesty, because the Maasai folks live a mobile life traveling within the modesty depending on the season and hence certain memorials or particular topographic points are non portion of their civilization. All their demands for ceremonials and rites are based on what they can happen in nature. ( Maasai Association, 2010 ) Refering recreational values one can happen three different Lodges and around 30 campgrounds to pass the dark at that place. Furthermore these Lodges or cantonments offer a figure of safaris including jeeped campaign, balloon campaign, Equus caballus siting campaign and walking campaigns accompanied by a Maasai. ( ORD Group, 2010 ) Finally the economic values of the Maasai Mara National Reserve are that it attracts a batch of tourers and as the figure of dwellers is invariably increasing, but the figure of farm animal is diminishing in the same clip, people depend more and more on other beginnings for nutriment. Therefore in the northern portion of the country they have started to raise extended Fieldss to turn e.g. soya beans, wheat or sorghum. ( UNESCO, 2010 )

Modifiers, restraints, bounds, measure uping factors

Modifiers: These are restraints that hinder touristry development at the Maasai Mara ReserveEcological: The harm in term of ecology is high, this is due to fact that Maasai Mara is non a national park but instead a national modesty hence it is non managed by the Kenya Wildlife Service. Its public assistance is entrusted in the custodies of Narok County Council and the Mara Conservancy who attain contract from the Trans Mara County Council. Harmonizing to Dublin ( 1991 ) the deficiency of proper direction leads to poaching, devastation of home ground by changeless uncontrolled shrub fires and exceptionally heavy inflow of elephants hence to a diminution in figure of animate beings. Furthermore over development of hotels, cantonments and loges outside the gate of the modesty is turning on a high rate.

A sum-up of the ecological constrains harmonizing to Charles Ndegwa Mundia, Yuji Murayama ( 2009 ) can be found in the appendix XYZ-II.

Physical: Paths are established, balloon and choppers in order to make the natural and cultural heritages. Visiting the modesty is possible throughout the old ages. High season is from January to March this is when it is to a great extent overcrowded by people because it is dry and warm. Besides in June and September it is overcrowded because this is the clip when wild animals migrate.

Health and Safety: Masai Mara Reserve is reasonably a safe topographic point, nevertheless, it is recommended non to acquire out of path. Refering the wellness issues, the Maasai Mara National Reserve lies in a malaria part which foresees to take anti malaria safeguards, have oning long-sleeved vesture after dark and using insect repellant. The H2O is safe and there is large infirmary in Nairobi 100km E of the park in instance of an exigency. Feeding animate beings is non allowed since it might bring on danger of daring and Foster aberrant behavior which might be harmful for the visitants.

Regulatory: There are many regulations and ordinances chiefly for preservation and visitant ‘s safety and lumberman to use ; there is a punishment in signifier of paying a certain sum of money. Harmonizing to Matt J. Walpole ( 2003 ) In the Mara Triangle ; non more than five vehicles is allowed around an animate being because it disturb the harmoniousness of animate beings. Second Human habitation is forbidden in the National Park merely staffs are allowed. Third driving off the route is non allowed. Besides Visitors are merely allowed on the roads from 06:00 to 19:00. Additionally people are urged to maintain the environment clean seting rubbish at their adjustment non at site. Respect the civilization of the local people and in conclusion no animate being eating by visitants because it unsafe.

Economic: the fee to make the modesty and cultural resources is moderate since the Kenyan currency value is low, except for the adjustment and guided Tourss depending on if you sleeping in cantonment or epicurean hotel. The theodolite to the park every bit good as come ining the park certain fee is obligated. Adult inhabitant costs 500 Kshs ; kids inhabitant costs 200 Kshs, grownup not local – 30 US dollars and kids not local – 10 US dollars.

Time: The modesty can be accessed from Nairobi airdrome, it ‘s about 270km that is six hours by auto but it can shorter by chopper. The more suited clip is in June and September when wildlife migration take topographic point Furthermore the high season is from January to March when it is warm and dry. In October & A ; December are showery seasons nevertheless it does n’t impede game sing

To reason the above constrains, it can be said that Mara modesty is confronting a batch of challenges chiefly sing the ecology. But they have implemented regulations to protect both the animate beings and the people although the regulations are non 100 % acted upon because the authorities left the modesty in the custodies of private ownership. However there is grounds that the site has abundant nature and civilization sites, alone species and rear landscape hence these fit in UNESCO standards.

Waypoints: Gateways, Portals, Icons

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